Reviews & Analysis

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  • In 2022, we witnessed advances in the field of alcohol-related liver disease. Key developments included the discovery of novel proteomics-based biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets that regulate the recognition of molecules derived from gut microbiota to modulate liver injury. Additionally, there have been significant advances in refining selection for liver transplantation in severe alcohol-associated hepatitis.

    • Juan Pablo Arab
    • Ramon Bataller
    Year in Review
  • 2022 was a proficuous year in both the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and obesity fields. Pharmacological treatment for obesity and NAFLD is moving forward, with the possibility of replacing bariatric surgery, artificial intelligence might help us access the histological effects of new drugs, and there were advances in personalized hepatocellular carcinoma screening in patients with NAFLD.

    • Mariana Verdelho Machado
    • Helena Cortez-Pinto
    Year in Review
  • Key studies published in 2022 further established the importance of alterations in the gut microenvironment and interactions with the enteric and central nervous systems in symptom generation in irritable bowel syndrome and suggested novel and clinically accessible therapeutic approaches for this large group of patients.

    • Magnus Simrén
    Year in Review
  • This Review discusses the current and emerging therapeutic landscape for treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, including molecular-targeted monotherapies, immuno-oncology monotherapies, combination therapies and novel therapeutic approaches.

    • Chen Yang
    • Hailin Zhang
    • Cun Wang
    Review Article
  • Advances in artificial intelligence (AI) are changing endoscopy and gastrointestinal surgery, including computer-assisted detection and diagnosis, computer-aided navigation, robot-assisted intervention and automated reporting. This Perspective introduces the role of AI in computer-assisted interventions in gastroenterology with insights on regulatory aspects and the challenges ahead.

    • François Chadebecq
    • Laurence B. Lovat
    • Danail Stoyanov
  • Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is closely associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and potentially provides unique insights into the gut–liver axis. This Review explores these links and provides an overview of the gut microbiome in PSC, including PSC–IBD, exploring related hypotheses of disease mechanisms.

    • Johannes R. Hov
    • Tom H. Karlsen
    Review Article
  • Pruritus in cholestatic liver diseases is a frequent symptom that impairs quality of life. This Review describes the mechanisms underlying cholestasis-associated itch, discusses potential pruritogens, and highlights therapeutic approaches to manage pruritus in various conditions, including primary biliary cholangitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

    • Ulrich Beuers
    • Frank Wolters
    • Ronald P. J. Oude Elferink
    Review Article
  • Eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the oesophagus with distinct clinicopathological features and a relationship to other atopic diseases. This Review provides an updated overview of the pathogenesis and clinical management of EoE and discusses treatment options.

    • Luc Biedermann
    • Alex Straumann
    Review Article
  • Mucus, produced by goblet cells, provides the intestinal tract with an additional layer of protection. This Review discusses the role of mucus and goblet cells in intestinal health and disease, and dissects the underlying regulatory mechanisms.

    • Jenny K. Gustafsson
    • Malin E. V. Johansson
    Review Article
  • The influence of nerves on cancer is beginning to be understood. This Review discusses emerging insights into the role of the nervous system in gastrointestinal cancer and of nerves as components of the tumour microenvironment, highlighting underlying mechanisms and its potential as a therapeutic target.

    • Nathalie Vaes
    • Musa Idris
    • Veerle Melotte
    Review Article
  • Archaea are an overlooked member of the human gut microbiota. This Perspective discusses key characteristics of archaea, their role in human health and physiology, and the clinical relevance of methanogenic archaea in the human gastrointestinal tract.

    • Christoph Hoegenauer
    • Heinz F. Hammer
    • Christine Moissl-Eichinger