Reviews & Analysis

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  • Mucus, produced by goblet cells, provides the intestinal tract with an additional layer of protection. This Review discusses the role of mucus and goblet cells in intestinal health and disease, and dissects the underlying regulatory mechanisms.

    • Jenny K. Gustafsson
    • Malin E. V. Johansson
    Review Article
  • The influence of nerves on cancer is beginning to be understood. This Review discusses emerging insights into the role of the nervous system in gastrointestinal cancer and of nerves as components of the tumour microenvironment, highlighting underlying mechanisms and its potential as a therapeutic target.

    • Nathalie Vaes
    • Musa Idris
    • Veerle Melotte
    Review Article
  • Archaea are an overlooked member of the human gut microbiota. This Perspective discusses key characteristics of archaea, their role in human health and physiology, and the clinical relevance of methanogenic archaea in the human gastrointestinal tract.

    • Christoph Hoegenauer
    • Heinz F. Hammer
    • Christine Moissl-Eichinger
  • Intestinal immune cell trafficking contributes to the pathogenesis of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs). This Review discusses the underlying immune cell trafficking mechanisms along the gut–liver, gut–joint and gut–brain axes and provides an overview of their implications for treatment options in IMIDs.

    • Sebastian Zundler
    • Claudia Günther
    • Markus F. Neurath
    Review Article
  • Experimental and clinical evidence supports a role of metabolic perturbation in the development of gut inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This Review discusses the role of diet and metabolic inflammation in IBD, outlining key concepts and highlighting the links between metabolism and inflammation in IBD.

    • Timon E. Adolph
    • Moritz Meyer
    • Herbert Tilg
    Review Article
  • Here, the authors provide an overview of benign liver tumours (hepatic haemangioma, focal nodular hyperplasia and hepatocellular adenoma), including pathogenesis, diagnosis and management. Insights into how molecular physiology could inform clinical practice are also highlighted.

    • Jean-Charles Nault
    • Valérie Paradis
    • Jessica Zucman-Rossi
    Review Article
  • In this Viewpoint, members of the Association of Black Gastroenterologists and Hepatologists discuss inclusivity and equity in academic medicine and give advice to Black students interested in a career in science or medicine.

    • Joan A. Culpepper-Morgan
    • Alexandra Guillaume
    • Renee Williams
  • Microbiota profiling using stool samples is limited in its ability to represent intestinal microbial dynamics. CRISPR-engineered bacteria can be used to acquire cellular RNAs and create a gene expression ‘memory’ during gastrointestinal transit, with the potential to capture microbial transcriptomic changes in the gastrointestinal tract without invasive sampling.

    • Alexander Crits-Christoph
    • Jotham Suez
    News & Views
  • Metabolic (dysfunction)-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is a chronic liver disease typically associated with obesity. This Review discusses the epidemiology and physiology of individuals of normal weight with MAFLD and provides insights into their metabolic health and metabolic adaptation.

    • Mohammed Eslam
    • Hashem B. El-Serag
    • Jacob George
    Review Article
  • Owing to its simplicity, dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis is one of the most widely used mouse models of colitis. However, the severity of inflammation varies from one experiment to another. In a new study, Forster and colleagues have provided new insights into the DSS model by revealing specific microbial taxa that underlie disease variability.

    • Nicolas Benech
    • Harry Sokol
    News & Views
  • Surveillance of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), one of the most lethal solid cancers globally, is insensitive for the detection of early-stage tumours. In this Review, the authors discuss HCC biomarkers that can improve early diagnosis, therapy monitoring and prediction of therapy response.

    • Philip Johnson
    • Qing Zhou
    • Y. M. Dennis Lo
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Souza and Spechler describe the mechanisms, pathophysiology and cells of origin of Barrett oesophagus, a precursor of oesophageal adenocarcinoma, and discuss the clinical implications.

    • Rhonda F. Souza
    • Stuart J. Spechler
    Review Article
  • This Review covers the discovery of Akkermansia muciniphila and its association with health and disease, including metabolic diseases. Insights into underlying mechanisms for how A. muciniphila improves health are given as are comparisons with other next-generation beneficial microorganisms.

    • Patrice D. Cani
    • Clara Depommier
    • Willem M. de Vos
    Review Article
  • The history of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a role model for successful basic, translational and clinical research. In this Perspective, the authors chart a timeline of breakthroughs in hepatitis C research, from discovery to cure.

    • Michael P. Manns
    • Benjamin Maasoumy
  • New data demonstrate racial and ethnic disparities in access to prescription medications in persons with chronic liver disease in the USA. Here, we discuss potential health equity solutions that address structural and social determinants of health to mitigate liver health inequities in access to liver disease pharmacotherapies.

    • Ani Kardashian
    • Lauren D. Nephew
    News & Views