Reviews & Analysis

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  • Cholangiopathies account for a remarkable proportion of liver transplantation cases, reinforcing the need for novel therapeutic approaches. Organoids hold great promise as novel cell-based therapies, although their applicability has not been addressed in humans. Now, a new study has reported the therapeutic effectiveness of cholangiocyte organoids to repair the injured human biliary epithelium.

    • Pedro M. Rodrigues
    • Jesus M. Banales
    News & Views
  • Postbiotics are emerging substances prepared from inactivated microorganisms, in contrast to probiotics, which must be administered alive. This Consensus Statement outlines a definition for the term ‘postbiotics’ as determined by an expert panel convened by the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics.

    • Seppo Salminen
    • Maria Carmen Collado
    • Gabriel Vinderola
    Consensus Statement Open Access
  • Studies of liver regeneration after injury have provided knowledge of the role of external signals and internal metabolic and regenerative pathways. However, less is understood about homeostatic maintenance of normal liver size in the absence of external injury. Three important new studies explore liver regeneration and homeostasis using novel lineage tagging of hepatic cells and single-cell RNA transcriptomics.

    • George K. Michalopoulos
    News & Views
  • The efficacy of faecal microbiota transplantation for the treatment of a range of diseases varies. In this Perspective, Sokol and colleagues discuss the relevance of various recipient factors that influence faecal microbiota transplantation success such as inflammation, immunity and genetics.

    • Camille Danne
    • Nathalie Rolhion
    • Harry Sokol
    Perspective
  • Immunotherapeutic interventions might be effective tools for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. This Review provides up-to-date information on the clinical use of currently available immunotherapies in hepatocellular carcinoma, the mechanisms of response and resistance, and the therapeutic strategies under development.

    • Bruno Sangro
    • Pablo Sarobe
    • Ignacio Melero
    Review Article
  • Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) signalling has important roles in the intestine. In this Review, Stockinger, Shah and Wincent discuss AHR regulation, its role in various intestinal cell types and in intestinal inflammation and tumorigenesis.

    • Brigitta Stockinger
    • Kathleen Shah
    • Emma Wincent
    Review Article
  • Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has a unique tumour microenvironment. Notably, PDAC can reprogramme metabolism in response to this microenvironment. This Review discusses metabolism in pancreatic cancer, including insights into mechanisms and processes as well as the potential therapeutic applications.

    • Joel Encarnación-Rosado
    • Alec C. Kimmelman
    Review Article
  • Enteric glia regulate homeostasis in the enteric nervous system and influence gastrointestinal function. This Review provides an update on enteric glial biology and the underlying mechanisms by which enteric glia regulate gastrointestinal function and disease, with a focus on neuronal and immune interactions.

    • Luisa Seguella
    • Brian D. Gulbransen
    Review Article
  • Intense research is ongoing to dissect the reciprocal interactions between microbiota and drugs. New work finds that a drug to dampen host inflammation can also have off-target effects on the microbiota at transcriptional, metabolic and compositional levels, with resultant expanded benefits to the host.

    • Aadra P. Bhatt
    • R. Balfour Sartor
    News & Views
  • This Review provides mechanistic and clinical insights into COVID-19 in the context of liver disease, discussing the potential underlying biology and clinical features of SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with pre-existing liver conditions. The management of these patients is also discussed, including SARS-CoV-2 vaccination strategies.

    • Thomas Marjot
    • Gwilym J. Webb
    • Eleanor Barnes
    Review Article
  • The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has increased rapidly and is associated with obesity in epidemiology and pathogenesis. A new study reports that hepatic and extrahepatic complications can develop in lean individuals with NAFLD, highlighting the importance of metabolic phenotypes in NAFLD assessment instead of BMI-based approaches.

    • Tian-Yi Ren
    • Jian-Gao Fan
    News & Views
  • Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is an acute intestinal emergency in preterm infants, which is often later complicated by cognitive delay and neurodevelopmental disability. A new study performed in mice suggests that CD4+ T cells can travel from the NEC-inflamed gut to the brain and cause IFNγ-mediated brain injury.

    • Jörn-Hendrik Weitkamp
    News & Views
  • Oesophageal cancer is a global health problem with two main histological subtypes, oesophageal adenocarcinoma and oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. This Review establishes the current epidemiology of oesophageal cancer, with a particular focus on the increasing incidence of oesophageal adenocarcinoma and its precursor, Barrett oesophagus.

    • Aaron P. Thrift
    Review Article
  • Although COVID-19 is a respiratory disease and its causative agent, SARS-CoV-2, principally infects the respiratory tract, extrapulmonary manifestations are observed. This Perspective explores the gastrointestinal symptoms associated with COVID-19 and the putative underlying mechanisms, discussing experimental evidence on SARS-COV-2 gastrointestinal infection and the potential for faecal–oral transmission.

    • Meng Guo
    • Wanyin Tao
    • Shu Zhu
    Perspective
  • Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) form the wall of the hepatic sinusoids and have essential roles in hepatic homeostasis. This Review describes the phenotypic dysregulations of LSECs in the context of liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma, and provides an update of the role of LSECs as therapeutic targets.

    • Jordi Gracia-Sancho
    • Esther Caparrós
    • Rubén Francés
    Review Article
  • The therapeutic pipeline for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is expanding as insights into disease pathophysiology are gained. This Review summarizes progress in the development of NASH therapies, current and ongoing clinical trials, and potential challenges with emerging therapies.

    • Raj Vuppalanchi
    • Mazen Noureddin
    • Arun J. Sanyal
    Review Article
  • Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has emerged as a global disease, yet identifying those at higher risk of developing IBD remains challenging. A new study highlights the use of a multi-ethnic polygenic risk score to determine risk of inflammatory bowel disease in a large primary care population.

    • Ashwin N. Ananthakrishnan
    News & Views
  • Many molecular, physiological and behavioural processes display distinct daily rhythms that are directed by the circadian system. This Review summarizes knowledge about the diurnal regulation of gastrointestinal processes by circadian clocks present in the digestive tract and its accessory organs, including circadian control of digestion, motility, hormones, barrier function and the gut microbiota.

    • Anneleen Segers
    • Inge Depoortere
    Review Article