Reviews & Analysis

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  • In 2023, we witnessed advances in allocation policies and marginal donors, including living donors. Key improvements included the uncapped Model for End-stage Liver Disease 3.0 score, unveiled machine perfusion trials to standard deceased donors and lessons from the aborted living donor liver transplantations.

    • Nam-Joon Yi
    Year in Review
  • Enteric nervous system function is essential for survival. Studies published in 2023 have provided important novel insights into the mechanisms that regulate its development and maintenance, and demonstrate how it can be restored when these mechanisms fail.

    • Werend Boesmans
    Year in Review
  • Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an immune-mediated inflammatory disease (IMID). Here, the authors review evidence on the preclinical phase of IBD, outlining and describing the proposed at-risk, initiation and expansion phases. Overlap with other IMIDs is discussed alongside the possible future directions for research into preclinical IBD.

    • Jonas J. Rudbaek
    • Manasi Agrawal
    • Tine Jess
    Review Article
  • Metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease (MASLD) has a strong heritable component, and genome-wide association cohort studies are highlighting the major genetic determinants of this condition. A meta-analysis of these databases has now enabled expansion of the list of the inherited variants that modulate the risk of MASLD. The identification of new MASLD risk loci is improving comprehension of disease pathogenesis and individual risk stratification, and also enabling the identification of novel therapeutic targets and disease subtypes that might ultimately lead to a precision medicine approach.

    • Luca V. C. Valenti
    • Vittoria Moretti
    News & Views
  • Innovative approaches to increase testing are needed to achieve the 2030 hepatitis B and hepatitis C elimination targets. Zhang et al., partnering with local community organizations, successfully used a pay-it-forward approach to increase hepatitis B and hepatitis C testing among men who have sex with men in China.

    • Margaret E. Hellard
    • Alisa Pedrana
    News & Views
  • The incidence of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is rising. In this Review, Hu and O’Reilly summarize the latest advances and clinical trials for the treatment of PDAC, including biomarkers, targeted therapies and immunotherapy as well as novel clinical trial designs. They also discuss emerging therapeutic options for this disease.

    • Z. Ian Hu
    • Eileen M. O’Reilly
    Review Article
  • This Perspective explores the relationship between screening endoscopy and colorectal cancer incidence, examining available evidence and offering insights into the discrepancies between real-world and trial evidence alongside potential pitfalls with interpreting the data.

    • Hermann Brenner
    • Thomas Heisser
    • Michael Hoffmeister
  • Histological assessment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is essential for clinical practice as it outlines diagnosis and lays the foundation of medical care. This Perspective summarizes the advancements in digital histology and discusses current and future applications in NAFLD.

    • Arun J. Sanyal
    • Prakash Jha
    • David E. Kleiner
  • Increasing evidence shows a role of cellular stress responses in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and liver fibrosis pathogenesis. This Review provides a comprehensive overview of the molecular mechanisms involved in cellular stress in fibrogenesis and their role in NASH progression.

    • Sachin Sharma
    • Dounia Le Guillou
    • Jennifer Y. Chen
    Review Article
  • Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) drive liver fibrosis and are closely linked to liver cancer development. This comprehensive Review provides an in-depth analysis of the specific characteristics of HSCs in cancer, highlighting therapeutic implications based on progress in clarifying HSC biology.

    • Bruno Cogliati
    • Chittampalli N. Yashaswini
    • Scott L. Friedman
    Review Article
  • The importance of commensal fungi in health and disease is becoming increasingly clear. In this Review, Ost and Round discuss the involvement of the mycobiota in intestinal diseases, and consider potential opportunities to target fungi and their interactions for therapeutic purposes.

    • Kyla S. Ost
    • June L. Round
    Review Article
  • Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NALFD) prevalence, including in children and adolescents, is rising worldwide. This Review offers a comprehensive overview of the lifestyle interventions available for NAFLD, including dietary and physical-activity strategies.

    • Zobair M. Younossi
    • Shira Zelber-Sagi
    • Lynn H. Gerber
    Review Article
  • Liver inflammation is a key process that orchestrates intrahepatic injury. This Review offers a comprehensive overview of the inflammatory mechanisms of hepatic fibrosis and discusses current advances and therapeutic implications.

    • Linda Hammerich
    • Frank Tacke
    Review Article