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  • Hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein-targeting compounds are in or entering clinical development without a standardized nomenclature. We propose a naming convention for these core-targeting antiviral products to provide clarity and accelerate HBV drug development.

    • Fabien Zoulim
    • Adam Zlotnick
    • Harry L. A. Janssen
    Comment
  • Practical recommendations on achieving equitability in biomedical research can advance essential efforts to balance research representation. In this Comment, we highlight how to generate interoperable and robust datasets, engage in thoughtful partnerships with researchers across geographies and cultures, and embrace innovative opportunities to push microbiome research beyond the gut and beyond bacteria.

    • Ovokeraye H. Oduaran
    • Ami S. Bhatt
    Comment
  • The recent increase in unexplained acute hepatitis in children in 2022 has focused attention on acute paediatric liver disease. We discuss emerging evidence and leading causal hypotheses in context with potential long-term effects of the COVID-19 pandemic for young children.

    • Deirdre A. Kelly
    • Zania Stamataki
    Comment
  • Only 12 high-income countries are on track to meet the World Health Organization’s goal of eliminating hepatitis C as a public health threat by 2030, and micro-elimination opportunities in high-risk populations in settings such as hospitals are often overlooked. We propose ten steps to eliminate hepatitis C in hospitals.

    • José Luis Calleja
    • Antonio Aguilera
    • Jeffrey V. Lazarus
    Comment
  • Biological sex bias in clinical trials is a common issue in various medical fields, including gastroenterology and hepatology. Without sex parity and increased attention to sex-specific analyses, the translation of trial results into real-world clinical practice remains suboptimal with unpredictable consequences for patient care.

    • Patrizia Burra
    • Alberto Zanetto
    • Giacomo Germani
    Comment
  • The definition of gastrointestinal involvement in post-acute COVID-19 syndrome, its frequency and its pathophysiology are still not completely understood. Here, we discuss the emerging evidence supporting immunological signatures and the unique nature of the gastrointestinal tract in this syndrome.

    • Hadar Meringer
    • Saurabh Mehandru
    Comment
  • The burgeoning field of intratumoural microbiome research has been driven by advances in next-generation sequencing technologies, with compelling evidence on the role of the microbiota in cancer initiation, progression and patient response to treatment. Here, we discuss new concepts of the tumour-associated microbiota and what is needed to advance the translational impact of these findings in gastrointestinal cancers.

    • Christopher D. Johnston
    • Susan Bullman
    Comment
  • Patients with end-stage liver disease and COVID-19 are at a higher risk of hospitalization, ventilation and death than those without chronic liver disease. Whether the aetiology of liver disease also affects the natural history of COVID-19 in cirrhosis is debated. Effective and universal vaccination is paramount to combat SARS-CoV-2 infection.

    • Francesco Paolo Russo
    • Patrizia Burra
    • Alberto Zanetto
    Comment
  • Although available clinical outcome data are reassuring, the consequences of in utero exposure to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pharmacotherapies on the development of the neonatal immune system remain ill-defined. So too does the converse effect on immunological maturation of fetal exposure to maternal inflammatory activity. Both warrant elucidation to appropriately stratify antenatal IBD care.

    • Ralley E. Prentice
    • Sally J. Bell
    • Rimma Goldberg
    Comment
  • Declining recruitment rates in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) trials have resulted in calls to modify the conduct of trials in IBD in order to make them more efficient and patient centred. Here, we propose a number of potential modifications.

    • Nurulamin M. Noor
    • Miles Parkes
    • Tim Raine
    Comment
  • Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) reflects the current challenge for immuno-oncology: to develop new drugs for cancers that are resistant to current immunotherapies. Here, we argue for a need to use patients to uncover new strategies that activate anti-tumour immunity.

    • Luis A. Rojas
    • Vinod P. Balachandran
    Comment
  • The application of single-cell RNA sequencing platforms has generated notable insights into the heterogeneity underlying pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), encompassing both the neoplastic compartment and the tumour microenvironment. In this Comment, we discuss the most pertinent findings gleaned from both mouse models and human PDAC samples, as well as future opportunities.

    • Jincheng Han
    • Ronald A. DePinho
    • Anirban Maitra
    Comment
  • The Association of Black Gastroenterologists and Hepatologists is a new organization that aims to improve gastrointestinal health outcomes in Black communities, foster networking and scholarship among its members, develop the pipeline of Black gastroenterologists and hepatologists, and promote health equity in the fields of gastroenterology and hepatology.

    • Pascale M. White
    • Ugonna Iroku
    • Renee L. Williams
    Comment
  • Traditionally underutilized human excreta have emerged as a rich source of digital biomarkers for disease prevention and early detection. In this Comment, we highlight the breadth of digital biomarkers that can be extracted from human excreta and their potential uses in the context of ‘precision health’.

    • Seung-min Park
    • T. Jessie Ge
    • Joseph C. Liao
    Comment
  • The popularity of social media amongst medical professionals has led to widespread use for both networking and education. Limited professional guidance exists on the sharing of medical imagery on these platforms. This Comment explores consent and offers reflective advice on the use of medical images on social media.

    • Jonathan P. Segal
    • Richard Hansen
    Comment
  • Intestinal ultrasonography (IUS) is an emerging, noninvasive, highly accessible and low-cost cross-sectional imaging modality for inflammatory bowel disease. This Comment summarizes how IUS in a point-of-care setting enables close patient monitoring.

    • Floris A. E. de Voogd
    • Bram Verstockt
    • Krisztina B. Gecse
    Comment
  • Data on the efficacy and safety of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are now available, but evidence for these vaccines in those who are immunocompromised (including patients with inflammatory bowel diseases) are lacking. As vaccination begins, questions on advantages and disadvantages can be partially addressed using the experience from other vaccines or immune-mediated inflammatory disorders.

    • Ferdinando D’Amico
    • Christian Rabaud
    • Silvio Danese
    Comment
  • Progress towards hepatitis B virus (HBV) elimination targets remains slow, despite efforts to support enhanced prevention, diagnosis and treatment. On the basis of insights from interventions against HIV, we argue for the wider use of antiviral therapy for HBV, highlighting the potential public health benefits in preventing liver disease and reducing transmission.

    • Anna L. McNaughton
    • Maud Lemoine
    • Philippa C. Matthews
    Comment