Ball of yarn unwinding into DNA strand making loops

New insights into genome folding by loop extrusion from inducible degron technologies

  • Elzo de Wit
  • Elphège P. Nora
Review Article


  • Stylized multi-coloured Circos plot

    Gregor Johann Mendel, considered by many the ‘father of modern genetics’, was born 200 years ago, on 20 July 1822. In commemoration of this milestone, this Nature Collection brings together articles that explore the origins of genetics and reflect on Mendel’s legacy, which continues to shape the field to this day.

  • Immune cells attacking cancer cells

    The immune system is constantly on the lookout for threats but can fail to spot cancer. Now, advanced sequencing technologies are enabling scientists to investigate the unique genetics of both cancers and immune responses in individual patients. This means researchers can develop treatments that boost the immune system and help the body win its battle against cancer.

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    The editors of Nature Reviews Genetics will be posting about the latest developments in research and policy, and providing news about the journal. If you have any questions or feedback for us, get in touch by email or on Twitter.

  • Researchers stranded on an island

    Finding it hard to navigate the flood of scientific literature? The Nature Reviews journals filter and highlight the most impactful research. Take a look at this animation to learn how Nature Reviews Genetics can help you stay up-to-date, or visit


    • Environmental pollutants have been shown to disrupt molecular mechanisms underlying common complex diseases. The authors review the interplay of environmental stressors with the human genome and epigenome as well as other molecular processes, such as production of extracellular vesicles, epitranscriptomic changes and mitochondrial changes, through which the environment can exert its effects.

      • Haotian Wu
      • Christina M. Eckhardt
      • Andrea A. Baccarelli
      Review Article
    • In this Review, Munir Pirmohamed provides an overview of the current state of the pharmacogenomics field, using examples of clinically relevant drug–gene associations, before outlining the steps needed for implementation of pharmacogenomics into clinical practice. The role of pharmacogenomics in drug discovery and development is also considered.

      • Munir Pirmohamed
      Review Article
    • The ability to map DNA and RNA modifications has improved our understanding of these marks, but in some cases inconsistent results have been problematic. Here, Kong et al. discuss how to recognize and resolve issues associated with commonly used sequencing-based approaches to minimize mapping errors.

      • Yimeng Kong
      • Edward A. Mead
      • Gang Fang
      Review Article
    • Macroautophagy and microautophagy involve characteristic membrane dynamics regulated by autophagy-related proteins to degrade cytoplasmic material in lysosomes. In this Review, the authors summarize recent progress in elucidating these highly conserved processes, the pathological relevance of autophagy-related genes in Mendelian and complex diseases, and the evolution of the autophagy pathway.

      • Hayashi Yamamoto
      • Sidi Zhang
      • Noboru Mizushima
      Review Article
    • The vast combinatorial sequence space of RNAs has prohibited quantitative mapping from nucleotide sequence to structure and function. New biochemical methods in vitro, which carry out measurements on hundreds of thousands of molecules at the same time, are now beginning to solve this issue.

      • Emil Marklund
      • Yuxi Ke
      • William J. Greenleaf
      Review Article
  • Two studies have revealed that the characteristic distribution of N6-methyladenosine (m6A) — an RNA modification known to be functionally important for mRNA metabolism among other processes — in mRNA is shaped by the exon junction complex during splicing.

    • Dorothy Clyde
    Research Highlight
  • Two new studies in Nature Biotechnology describe cellular recording systems that incorporate time-resolved optical signals into self-assembling protein filaments.

    • Darren J. Burgess
    Research Highlight
  • In this Journal club, Meritxell Huch recalls a dogma postulated by Hayflick in 1961, that the capacity for propagating primary epithelial cells with normal ploidy is limited — a theory that persisted until the advent of organoid cultures.

    • Meritxell Huch
    Journal Club
  • A study in Nature reports comprehensive, genome-wide mapping of the human methylome that provides mechanistic insights into gene regulation and offers great potential for analysis of cell-free DNA.

    • Kirsty Minton
    Research Highlight
  • Sérgio Pena discusses a 2019 study by Gruhn et al., which showed that meiotic chromosome segregation errors originating in oocytes determine the curve of female fertility in humans.

    • Sergio D. J. Pena
    Journal Club
A Nobel Prize medal against a background of pills and an electrocardiogra

Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2022

The 2022 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to Svante Pääbo "for his discoveries concerning the genomes of extinct hominins and human evolution".


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