Latest Reviews

  • Review Article |

    This Review summarizes the adaptations to lipid metabolism that occur in skeletal muscle in response to either a high-fat diet or exercise training. In addition, obesity-associated impairments in fatty acid oxidation capacity and the importance of exercise for overcoming lipid metabolic inflexibility in obesity are discussed.

    • Andreas Mæchel Fritzen
    • , Anne-Marie Lundsgaard
    •  & Bente Kiens
  • Review Article |

    With immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) technologies increasingly being used in cancer immunotherapy, early data suggest that ICB therapies could be effective in thyroid cancer. This Review discusses our current knowledge of the immune response in thyroid cancers, the latest and ongoing immune-based approaches and the future of immunotherapies in thyroid cancer.

    • Jena D. French
  • Perspective |

    Lipoedema is a disorder characterized by the symmetrical accumulation of mechanically compliant adipose tissue in the proximal extremities. This Perspective article proposes a new mechanism for lipoedema, in which dysfunctional caveolin 1 in adipose tissue becomes uncoupled from key feedback loops with matrix metalloproteinase 14, oestrogen receptor and prospero homeobox 1.

    • Ilja L. Kruglikov
    • , Nolwenn Joffin
    •  & Philipp E. Scherer
  • Review Article |

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) confers considerable pharmacological benefits on a cluster of obesity-related metabolic complications when administered to preclinical models. This Review discusses FGF21 analogues and mimetics and highlights their efficacy in preclinical models and clinical trials. The challenges in developing FGF21-based therapeutics are also considered.

    • Leiluo Geng
    • , Karen S. L. Lam
    •  & Aimin Xu
  • Review Article |

    This Review outlines the latest understanding of the pathogenesis of primary aldosteronism. Current treatment options are also discussed, including the potential for targeted therapies.

    • Maria-Christina Zennaro
    • , Sheerazed Boulkroun
    •  & Fabio L. Fernandes-Rosa
  • Review Article |

    This Review highlights the evidence from clinical trials that diet-induced weight loss interventions can be used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. The composition of the diet and the importance of physical exercise programmes are discussed. Lifestyle interventions for prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus are also considered.

    • Faidon Magkos
    • , Mads F. Hjorth
    •  & Arne Astrup
  • Review Article |

    This Review discusses the ways in which adult reproductive function can be shaped by childhood events and examines the evidence for the epigenetic regulation of key regulatory genes that govern the central control of reproduction.

    • Ben Bar-Sadeh
    • , Sergei Rudnizky
    • , Lilach Pnueli
    • , Gillian R. Bentley
    • , Reinhard Stöger
    • , Ariel Kaplan
    •  & Philippa Melamed
  • Review Article |

    Pre-eclampsia and fetal growth restriction are diseases of pregnancy that arise from disorders of placental development. This Review discusses healthy development of the placenta and considers disease mechanisms, biomarkers and diagnosis of pre-eclampsia and fetal growth restriction.

    • John D. Aplin
    • , Jenny E. Myers
    • , Kate Timms
    •  & Melissa Westwood
  • Review Article |

    This Review highlights the research advances, advantages and challenges in several different strategies for generating functional β-cells for therapeutic use in diabetes mellitus. In addition, scalable bioengineering processes are also discussed for the realization of the therapeutic potential of derived β-cells.

    • Gopika G. Nair
    • , Emmanuel S. Tzanakakis
    •  & Matthias Hebrok
  • Review Article |

    Creatine is well known to have a key role in energy buffering; however, new work is showing that creatine also has roles in diverse cell types and physiological conditions that are distinct from this classic role. This Review discusses the role of creatine in adipocyte thermogenesis, immunity and cancer cell survival.

    • Lawrence Kazak
    •  & Paul Cohen
  • Evidence-based Guidelines
    | Open Access

    Dumping syndrome is a frequent complication of oesophageal and gastric surgery, as well as bariatric surgery; however, guidance on how to manage patients with this condition is lacking. In this Evidence-based guideline, the authors use a Delphi consensus process to develop uniform guidance for the definition, diagnosis and management of dumping syndrome.

    • Emidio Scarpellini
    • , Joris Arts
    • , George Karamanolis
    • , Anna Laurenius
    • , Walter Siquini
    • , Hidekazu Suzuki
    • , Andrew Ukleja
    • , Andre Van Beek
    • , Tim Vanuytsel
    • , Serhat Bor
    • , Eugene Ceppa
    • , Carlo Di Lorenzo
    • , Marloes Emous
    • , Heinz Hammer
    • , Per Hellström
    • , Martine Laville
    • , Lars Lundell
    • , Ad Masclee
    • , Patrick Ritz
    •  & Jan Tack
  • Review Article |

    Gain-of-function mutations in the genes encoding ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP channel) subunits cause neonatal diabetes mellitus. This Review discusses the mechanism of action of mutations that lead to neonatal diabetes mellitus and briefly reviews work on the management of this disease.

    • Tanadet Pipatpolkai
    • , Samuel Usher
    • , Phillip J. Stansfeld
    •  & Frances M. Ashcroft
  • Review Article |

    This Review discusses the emerging aspects of crosstalk in the nuclear receptor field. The authors present various mechanistic crosstalk modes and provide examples that support applicability of the atypical heterodimer concept.

    • Karolien De Bosscher
    • , Sofie J. Desmet
    • , Dorien Clarisse
    • , Eva Estébanez-Perpiña
    •  & Luc Brunsveld
  • Review Article |

    High doses and long-term use of glucocorticoids lead to an important and common iatrogenic complication, glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. This Review outlines our current understanding of the pathogenesis of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis and discusses treatment options.

    • Pojchong Chotiyarnwong
    •  & Eugene V. McCloskey
  • Review Article |

    This Review summarizes the process involved in the metabolism of macronutrients (carbohydrates, lipids and proteins) with a focus on the physiological and neuroendocrine aspects. The associations between macronutrients and obesity are also discussed in the context of factors such as genetics and the microbiome composition.

    • Rodrigo San-Cristobal
    • , Santiago Navas-Carretero
    • , Miguel Ángel Martínez-González
    • , José María Ordovas
    •  & José Alfredo Martínez
  • Review Article |

    Young-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) diagnosed in people aged <40 years has a more rapid disease course that later-onset T2DM. This Review discusses the current and future burden of young-onset T2DM in different populations and highlights the associations of young-onset T2DM with premature mortality and morbidity.

    • Dianna J. Magliano
    • , Julian W. Sacre
    • , Jessica L. Harding
    • , Edward W. Gregg
    • , Paul Z. Zimmet
    •  & Jonathan E. Shaw
  • Perspective |

    Osteoporosis interventions are currently recommended in a small proportion of postmenopausal women, of whom ~50% will experience bone fracture. This Perspectives proposes that broader use of generic bisphosphonates would result in reductions in total fracture numbers and suggests that the current bone density definition of osteoporosis requires reappraisal.

    • Ian R. Reid
  • Review Article |

    The adrenal glands are a source of androgens that all share an oxygen atom on carbon 11 (termed 11-oxyandrogens). This Review focuses on the rapidly expanding knowledge regarding the implications of 11-oxyandrogens in human physiology and disease.

    • Adina F. Turcu
    • , Juilee Rege
    • , Richard J. Auchus
    •  & William E. Rainey
  • Review Article |

    This Review discusses mechanisms of cellular senescence and approaches to target this pathway therapeutically using ‘senolytic’ drugs or inhibitors of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype. In addition, evidence is presented that cellular senescence has a causative role in multiple chronic diseases associated with ageing and/or endocrine diseases.

    • Sundeep Khosla
    • , Joshua N. Farr
    • , Tamara Tchkonia
    •  & James L. Kirkland
  • Review Article |

    This Review discusses the connections between insulin signalling and oncogenic transformation, highlighting the potential effect of insulin as a pro-tumorigenic factor. The latest studies examining new approaches to circumvent systemic insulin feedback to increase the antitumour effect of agents targeting the insulin signalling pathway are discussed.

    • Benjamin D. Hopkins
    • , Marcus D. Goncalves
    •  & Lewis C. Cantley
  • Review Article |

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has genetic and environmental risk factors that result in impaired glucose homeostasis. This Review discusses efforts to identify molecular mechanisms associated with T2DM susceptibility loci and highlights the current human models that are used to study β-cell development and function.

    • Nicole A. J. Krentz
    •  & Anna L. Gloyn
  • Perspective |

    Prediabetes phenotype can influence the effectiveness of lifestyle intervention-based diabetes prevention programmes. This Perspectives suggests that diabetes prevention programmes are not effective in individuals with isolated impaired fasting glucose and calls for further research to improve prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus in this population.

    • Matthew D. Campbell
    • , Thirunavukkarasu Sathish
    • , Paul Z. Zimmet
    • , Kavumpurathu R. Thankappan
    • , Brian Oldenburg
    • , David R. Owens
    • , Jonathan E. Shaw
    •  & Robyn J. Tapp
  • Review Article |

    This Review examines the emerging concept that distinct ceramide species in specific cellular compartments can exert specialized functions in obesity-associated deterioration of metabolic homeostasis. Ceramides are therefore potential targets in the development of novel and specific therapies for obesity and obesity-associated diseases.

    • Sarah M. Turpin-Nolan
    •  & Jens C. Brüning
  • Review Article |

    Food is widely assumed to be a zeitgeber, or time cue, for the human circadian system; however, evidence from human trials is scarce. This Review highlights evidence from human studies that food is a zeitgeber and compares findings against formal zeitgeber criteria.

    • Philip Lewis
    • , Henrik Oster
    • , Horst W. Korf
    • , Russell G. Foster
    •  & Thomas C. Erren
  • Consensus Statement
    | Open Access

    In this Consensus Statement, the International Atherosclerosis Society and International Chair on Cardiometabolic Risk Working Group on Visceral Obesity recommend that waist circumference be included routinely as a measurement in clinical practice. They summarize the evidence that waist circumference and BMI together can provide improved assessments of cardiometabolic risk compared with either measurement alone.

    • Robert Ross
    • , Ian J. Neeland
    • , Shizuya Yamashita
    • , Iris Shai
    • , Jaap Seidell
    • , Paolo Magni
    • , Raul D. Santos
    • , Benoit Arsenault
    • , Ada Cuevas
    • , Frank B. Hu
    • , Bruce A. Griffin
    • , Alberto Zambon
    • , Philip Barter
    • , Jean-Charles Fruchart
    • , Robert H. Eckel
    • , Yuji Matsuzawa
    •  & Jean-Pierre Després
  • Review Article |

    Selenium status varies across the world and adverse health effects have been observed at both extremes of intake. This Review discusses the physiological functions of selenium and highlights evidence that selenium status is important in thyroid function. The evidence for selenium supplementation from randomized clinical trials in benign thyroid diseases is also considered.

    • Kristian Hillert Winther
    • , Margaret Philomena Rayman
    • , Steen Joop Bonnema
    •  & Laszlo Hegedüs
  • Review Article |

    This article discusses the role of thyroid hormones in craniofacial bone formation. The clinical consequences of thyroid hormone excess and deficiency are also outlined.

    • Victoria D. Leitch
    • , J. H. Duncan Bassett
    •  & Graham R. Williams
  • Review Article |

    Graves orbitopathy has a negative impact on a patient’s quality of life. This Review provides an overview of the field and outlines the optimal management of Graves orbitopathy. The authors also highlight future research questions to direct future clinical trials.

    • Peter N. Taylor
    • , Lei Zhang
    • , Richard W. J. Lee
    • , Ilaria Muller
    • , Daniel G. Ezra
    • , Colin M. Dayan
    • , George J. Kahaly
    •  & Marian Ludgate
  • Review Article |

    The dominant immune cell type causing pancreatic islet inflammation in individuals with obesity and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus is the macrophage. In this Review, we focus on the characteristics of inflammation in obese or type 2 diabetes mellitus islets and the consequences of this with respect to β-cell function.

    • Wei Ying
    • , Wenxian Fu
    • , Yun Sok Lee
    •  & Jerrold M. Olefsky
  • Review Article |

    In this Review, the authors highlight findings from genome-wide association studies and studies using various omics technologies individually to identify mechanisms of osteoporosis, which is a highly heritable condition. They also summarize current studies of data integration to understand, diagnose and inform the treatment of osteoporosis.

    • Tie-Lin Yang
    • , Hui Shen
    • , Anqi Liu
    • , Shan-Shan Dong
    • , Lei Zhang
    • , Fei-Yan Deng
    • , Qi Zhao
    •  & Hong-Wen Deng
  • Review Article |

    This Review provides an up-to-date overview of the lipolytic effects of growth hormone (GH), setting current knowledge into the context of historical data. In addition, the molecular mechanisms of GH-induced lipolysis and insulin resistance as well as the actions of GH on different adipose tissue depots and adipocyte subsets are discussed.

    • John J. Kopchick
    • , Darlene E. Berryman
    • , Vishwajeet Puri
    • , Kevin Y. Lee
    •  & Jens O. L. Jorgensen
  • Review Article |

    This Review provides an overview of the extensive crosstalk between adipocytes, resident innate immune cells and the sympathetic nerves that innervate adipose tissue, as well as the changes that occur in these secretory and signalling pathways in obesity.

    • Chelsea M. Larabee
    • , Oliver C. Neely
    •  & Ana I. Domingos
  • Perspective |

    Although dietary protein is crucial for human health, excessively high protein intake could have negative health consequences. This Perspective serves as a word of caution against the trend of protein-enriched diets and provides an evidence-based counterpoint that underscores the potential adverse public health consequences of high protein intake.

    • Bettina Mittendorfer
    • , Samuel Klein
    •  & Luigi Fontana
  • Consensus Statement
    | Open Access

    In this Expert Consensus Statement, the authors define 10 key characteristics (KCs) for endocrine-disrupting chemicals. They further describe the logic by which these KCs are identified and the assays that could be used to assess several of these KCs.

    • Michele A. La Merrill
    • , Laura N. Vandenberg
    • , Martyn T. Smith
    • , William Goodson
    • , Patience Browne
    • , Heather B. Patisaul
    • , Kathryn Z. Guyton
    • , Andreas Kortenkamp
    • , Vincent J. Cogliano
    • , Tracey J. Woodruff
    • , Linda Rieswijk
    • , Hideko Sone
    • , Kenneth S. Korach
    • , Andrea C. Gore
    • , Lauren Zeise
    •  & R. Thomas Zoeller
  • Review Article |

    Globally, the incidence of thyroid cancer is on the increase. This Review highlights the epidemiology of thyroid cancer in high-income, middle-income and low-income countries and discusses the prevalence of modifiable individual risk factors and population-level exposures to environmental risk factors.

    • Jina Kim
    • , Jessica E. Gosnell
    •  & Sanziana A. Roman
  • Review Article |

    Circulating microRNAs act as a new class of endocrine factor that can facilitate crosstalk between metabolic organs. This Review highlights obesity-associated and/or adipose tissue-enriched microRNAs and discusses their potential as biomarkers or therapeutics for obesity and related disorders.

    • Chenbo Ji
    •  & Xirong Guo
  • Review Article |

    This Review discusses the effects of space flight in low Earth orbit on reproductive end points in humans and experimental animals. The effects of simulated microgravity, hypergravity and experimentally generated space radiation on reproductive end points are also outlined.

    • Birendra Mishra
    •  & Ulrike Luderer