Latest Reviews

  • Review Article |

    The blood–brain barrier (BBB), which is widely known as the border that separates circulating blood from the brain, is also a secretory body. This Review examines the various ways in which the BBB exhibits endocrine-related properties.

    • William A. Banks
  • Review Article |

    In this Review, Etienne Challet discusses the dual modulation of food intake by homeostatic and circadian processes, describes the mechanisms regulating feeding time and highlights the beneficial effects of correctly timed eating, as opposed to the negative metabolic consequences of mistimed eating.

    • Etienne Challet
  • Perspective |

    Young people with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) are at risk of vascular complications. In this Perspectives article, M. Loredana Marcovecchio and colleagues present a new framework for managing the risk of vascular complications in young people with T1DM.

    • M. Loredana Marcovecchio
    • , R. Neil Dalton
    • , Denis Daneman
    • , John Deanfield
    • , Timothy W. Jones
    • , H. Andrew W. Neil
    •  & David B. Dunger
  • Review Article |

    Women with pre-existing diabetes mellitus are at increased risk of complications during pregnancy. This Review outlines the latest management strategies that have been designed to reduce this risk, including diet and pharmacotherapy options.

    • Lene Ringholm
    • , Peter Damm
    •  & Elisabeth R. Mathiesen
  • Review Article |

    Prolactin is mainly known for its involvement in the regulation of lactation. In this Review, the authors describe other newly discovered roles of prolactin in human health and disease and discuss new data on the pathological states of hypoprolactinaemia and hyperprolactinaemia.

    • Valérie Bernard
    • , Jacques Young
    •  & Nadine Binart
  • Review Article |

    T3 and T4 are synthesized in the thyroid gland in a process that involves the iodoglycoprotein thyroglobulin. In this Review, we consider the role of thyroglobulin in thyroid hormonogenesis from evolutionary, biochemical, molecular, cellular and physiological angles.

    • Cintia E. Citterio
    • , Héctor M. Targovnik
    •  & Peter Arvan
  • Review Article |

    In this Review, new insights into the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis are integrated within a novel conceptual framework that can be used to re-appreciate adrenocortical function and dysfunction in the context of critical illness.

    • Arno Téblick
    • , Bram Peeters
    • , Lies Langouche
    •  & Greet Van den Berghe
  • Review Article |

    Overgrowth syndromes are a heterogeneous group of rare disorders characterized by generalized or segmental excessive growth. This Review discusses the clinical and molecular diagnosis, tumour risk and recommendations for tumour screening for the most prevalent generalized and segmental overgrowth syndromes.

    • Frédéric Brioude
    • , Annick Toutain
    • , Eloise Giabicani
    • , Edouard Cottereau
    • , Valérie Cormier-Daire
    •  & Irene Netchine
  • Review Article |

    Exercise has many beneficial effects on brain health, but how exercise is sensed by the brain has not been well understood. This Review describes evidence that supports the existence of a muscle–brain endocrine loop, in which muscle-induced peripheral factors enable direct crosstalk between muscle and brain.

    • Bente Klarlund Pedersen
  • Review Article |

    This Review discusses how signals arising from activity are perceived by cell populations and how the cells respond to them, with particular emphasis on the musculoskeletal and adipose systems. The potential of exercise as a non-invasive and non-pharmacological method of regulating osteoporosis and obesity is also outlined.

    • Gabriel M. Pagnotti
    • , Maya Styner
    • , Gunes Uzer
    • , Vihitaben S. Patel
    • , Laura E. Wright
    • , Kirsten K. Ness
    • , Theresa A. Guise
    • , Janet Rubin
    •  & Clinton T. Rubin
  • Review Article |

    The prevalence of obesity has increased worldwide in the past ~50 years, reaching pandemic levels. Remarkable regional differences exist in obesity prevalence and trends, which might help to identify societal causes of obesity and provide guidance for the most promising intervention strategies.

    • Matthias Blüher
  • Review Article |

    Interest in motilin is growing, as several studies have shown its relevance in the control of hunger and regulation of food intake in both health and disease. The current state of knowledge and implications for therapy are summarized in this Review.

    • Eveline Deloose
    • , Wout Verbeure
    • , Inge Depoortere
    •  & Jan Tack
  • Review Article |

    In this Review, the authors explore the role of gut microbial metabolites derived from carbohydrate fermentation and protein fermentation in body weight control, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    • Emanuel E. Canfora
    • , Ruth C. R. Meex
    • , Koen Venema
    •  & Ellen E. Blaak
  • Review Article |

    Exercise is used to prevent and treat metabolic diseases. Finding the optimum time for exercise is important as skeletal muscle has many clock-controlled genes. This Review summarizes the current literature regarding the consequence of exercise at different times of the day.

    • Brendan M. Gabriel
    •  & Juleen R. Zierath
  • Review Article |

    In obesity management, the prevention of weight regain after weight loss is a major challenge. In this Review, the authors discuss mechanisms associated with adipose tissue that are connected to weight regain, including cellular stress, extracellular matrix remodelling and inflammation.

    • Marleen A. van Baak
    •  & Edwin C. M. Mariman
  • Review Article |

    Insulin resistance is a main determinant in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Here, the authors review the physiological links between circadian clocks and insulin sensitivity and present current evidence for a relationship between circadian disruption and insulin resistance.

    • Dirk Jan Stenvers
    • , Frank A. J. L. Scheer
    • , Patrick Schrauwen
    • , Susanne E. la Fleur
    •  & Andries Kalsbeek
  • Review Article |

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity are major public health challenges; emerging evidence suggests that melatonin is involved in the development of these disorders, opening new avenues for research. This Review discusses the effect of melatonin and its receptors on glucose homeostasis, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    • Angeliki Karamitri
    •  & Ralf Jockers
  • Review Article |

    Loss or dysfunction of β-cells is a characteristic of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Regeneration of β-cells might stop or reverse the progression of the disease. This Review discusses the different modelling systems and technologies currently used to study β-cell biology in health and disease.

    • Mostafa Bakhti
    • , Anika Böttcher
    •  & Heiko Lickert
  • Review Article |

    Cachexia is a multi-organ syndrome associated with cancer. In this Review, Josep M. Argilés and colleagues discuss the role of different tissues and organs in cancer cachexia and examine studies that investigate the development of novel therapeutics for the condition.

    • Josep M. Argilés
    • , Britta Stemmler
    • , Francisco J. López-Soriano
    •  & Silvia Busquets
  • Review Article |

    The association between obesity and increased risk of developing cancer is partly driven by disruption of metabolism and inflammation in the adipose tissue. This Review discusses changes in the adipose tissue microenvironment during body-weight gain and how these changes affect tumour initiation and growth.

    • Daniela F. Quail
    •  & Andrew J. Dannenberg
  • Review Article |

    Therapeutic treatments that target multiple signalling pathways in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) could be more effective at reversing the progression of these diseases than current therapies. In this Review, the authors discuss advances in combination pharmacotherapies that target multiple pathways for the treatment of obesity and T2DM.

    • Christoffer Clemmensen
    • , Brian Finan
    • , Timo D. Müller
    • , Richard D. DiMarchi
    • , Matthias H. Tschöp
    •  & Susanna M. Hofmann
  • Review Article |

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors prevent cardiovascular events by lowering levels of LDL cholesterol derived from the liver. However, PCSK9 is expressed in many other tissues, including the pancreas and central nervous system. This Review explores the functions of PCSK9 beyond the control of cholesterol levels.

    • Robert M. Stoekenbroek
    • , Gilles Lambert
    • , Bertrand Cariou
    •  & G. Kees Hovingh
  • Review Article |

    Pituitary gigantism is a rare growth disorder caused by excessive release of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1. This Review discusses the diagnosis, genetic causes and clinical management of pituitary gigantism.

    • Albert Beckers
    • , Patrick Petrossians
    • , Julien Hanson
    •  & Adrian F. Daly
  • Review Article |

    The signalling events leading to insulin release from β-cells are tightly controlled and new techniques are needed to understand the complicated interactions. This Review discusses new optical tools available to further our understanding of β-cell function and insulin release.

    • James A. Frank
    • , Johannes Broichhagen
    • , Dmytro A. Yushchenko
    • , Dirk Trauner
    • , Carsten Schultz
    •  & David J. Hodson
  • Review Article |

    Over the past 10 years, evidence has accumulated to suggest that α-cells are involved in the development of diabetes mellitus. This Review outlines our current understanding of α-cells and discusses how they could be targeted in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

    • Jesper Gromada
    • , Pauline Chabosseau
    •  & Guy A. Rutter
  • Review Article |

    This Review focuses on the function of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) in controlling metabolism and their influence in metabolic diseases (including obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease). The therapeutic potential of targeting HIFs for the treatment of metabolic diseases will also be discussed.

    • Frank J. Gonzalez
    • , Cen Xie
    •  & Changtao Jiang
  • Review Article |

    Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is a vital component of cellular metabolism and the extracellular matrix of the skeleton. In this Review, Sampada Chande and Clemens Bergwitz discuss the metabolic effects of Pi and the consequences of its dysregulation.

    • Sampada Chande
    •  & Clemens Bergwitz
  • Review Article |

    The WNT signalling pathway has been identified as a potential target for the development of therapeutics for osteoporosis. This Review discusses the specificity and potential off-target actions of WNT-based therapeutics and describes the available preclinical and clinical studies.

    • Natasha M. Appelman-Dijkstra
    •  & Socrates E. Papapoulos
  • Review Article |

    Circulating and imaging biomarkers could be useful for the diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). Here, Wouter de Herder and colleagues review the latest research on biomarkers in the NET field and provide clinicians with a comprehensive overview of relevant diagnostic biomarkers.

    • Johannes Hofland
    • , Wouter T. Zandee
    •  & Wouter W. de Herder
  • Review Article |

    Treatment protocols for thyroid cancers range from active surveillance to total thyroidectomy followed by radioiodine remnant ablation. In this Review, the authors discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the surveillance tools and follow-up strategies used by clinicians in the treatment of thyroid cancers.

    • Livia Lamartina
    • , Giorgio Grani
    • , Cosimo Durante
    • , Isabelle Borget
    • , Sebastiano Filetti
    •  & Martin Schlumberger
  • Review Article |

    The prevalence of obesity in combination with sarcopenia is increasing in adults aged 65 years and older. Here, John Batsis and Dennis Villareal explore the sex-specific hormonal changes, inflammatory pathways and myocellular mechanisms that lead to the development of sarcopenic obesity.

    • John A. Batsis
    •  & Dennis T. Villareal
  • Consensus Statement | | open

    Acromegaly is usually caused by a pituitary adenoma that secretes growth hormone; treatment of acromegaly and its comorbidities is often complex. In this Consensus Statement, Shlomo Melmed and colleagues provide updated recommendations for the treatment of patients with acromegaly.

    • Shlomo Melmed
    • , Marcello D. Bronstein
    • , Philippe Chanson
    • , Anne Klibanski
    • , Felipe F. Casanueva
    • , John A. H. Wass
    • , Christian J. Strasburger
    • , Anton Luger
    • , David R. Clemmons
    •  & Andrea Giustina
  • Review Article |

    Many mechanistic processes during ageing and age-related diseases cause inflammation. In this Review, the authors discuss the relationship between the immune and metabolic systems during ageing and age-related diseases and the potential use of new biomarkers capable of distinguishing between biological and chronological age in metabolic diseases.

    • Claudio Franceschi
    • , Paolo Garagnani
    • , Paolo Parini
    • , Cristina Giuliani
    •  & Aurelia Santoro
  • Review Article |

    Cognitive dysfunction is an important comorbidity of diabetes mellitus. In this Review, Geert Jan Biessels and Florin Despa discuss the different manifestations of diabetes-mellitus-associated cognitive dysfunction. They also review the role of experimental models in improving our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms.

    • Geert Jan Biessels
    •  & Florin Despa
  • Consensus Statement | | open

    This Consensus Statement gives recommendations for the diagnosis and management of patients with pseudohypoparathyroidism and related disorders. A coordinated and multidisciplinary approach from infancy through adulthood is recommended to improve the care of these patients.

    • Giovanna Mantovani
    • , Murat Bastepe
    • , David Monk
    • , Luisa de Sanctis
    • , Susanne Thiele
    • , Alessia Usardi
    • , S. Faisal Ahmed
    • , Roberto Bufo
    • , Timothée Choplin
    • , Gianpaolo De Filippo
    • , Guillemette Devernois
    • , Thomas Eggermann
    • , Francesca M. Elli
    • , Kathleen Freson
    • , Aurora García Ramirez
    • , Emily L. Germain-Lee
    • , Lionel Groussin
    • , Neveen Hamdy
    • , Patrick Hanna
    • , Olaf Hiort
    • , Harald Jüppner
    • , Peter Kamenický
    • , Nina Knight
    • , Marie-Laure Kottler
    • , Elvire Le Norcy
    • , Beatriz Lecumberri
    • , Michael A. Levine
    • , Outi Mäkitie
    • , Regina Martin
    • , Gabriel Ángel Martos-Moreno
    • , Masanori Minagawa
    • , Philip Murray
    • , Arrate Pereda
    • , Robert Pignolo
    • , Lars Rejnmark
    • , Rebecca Rodado
    • , Anya Rothenbuhler
    • , Vrinda Saraff
    • , Ashley H. Shoemaker
    • , Eileen M. Shore
    • , Caroline Silve
    • , Serap Turan
    • , Philip Woods
    • , M. Carola Zillikens
    • , Guiomar Perez de Nanclares
    •  & Agnès Linglart
  • Review Article |

    The liver X receptor (LXR) pathway is important for maintaining cholesterol homeostasis. In this Review, the authors discuss the role of LXRs in cholesterol and lipid metabolism and the emerging strategies to target the LXR pathway to treat metabolic diseases.

    • Bo Wang
    •  & Peter Tontonoz
  • Perspective |

    Unhealthy food and drink surround us in our daily food environments. Here, Anna Peeters discusses how we can improve our food environments and details how clinicians can help implement and set healthy food policies across all our health-care settings.

    • Anna Peeters
  • Review Article |

    The δ-cells of the pancreatic islets secrete somatostatin, which inhibits insulin and glucagon secretion. In this Review, the authors summarize the cellular physiology of somatostatin secretion, how this might go wrong in diabetes mellitus and potential therapeutic targets.

    • Patrik Rorsman
    •  & Mark O. Huising