Reviews & Analysis

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  • The pathophysiology of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) and diabetes mellitus are interlinked, and diabetes mellitus is associated with severe COVID-19 outcomes. This Review highlights new advances in diabetes mellitus and COVID-19, considering disease mechanisms and clinical management of patients with diabetes mellitus in the ongoing pandemic.

    • Soo Lim
    • Jae Hyun Bae
    • Michael A. Nauck
    Review Article
  • This Review provides insight into sexual dimorphism in adipose tissue distribution and substrate metabolism in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and liver, as well as the underlying mechanisms. The effects of these sex differences on cardiometabolic health are outlined and the potential for developing sex-specific prevention and treatment strategies is discussed.

    • Gijs H. Goossens
    • Johan W. E. Jocken
    • Ellen E. Blaak
    Review Article
  • In two phase III trials, surufatinib, a novel oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting immune cells and angiogenesis, was effective for treating pancreatic and extra-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours. These findings further expand the therapeutic options for patients with gastro–entero–pancreatic, thymic and lung neuroendocrine tumours.

    • Anna Koumarianou
    • Gregory Kaltsas
    News & Views
  • Disruption of the circadian system can alter microbiome communities and can perturb host metabolism leading to the metabolic syndrome. This Perspective discusses the role of intestinal microbiota in mediating the effects circadian dysrhythmia on human health.

    • Faraz Bishehsari
    • Robin M. Voigt
    • Ali Keshavarzian
    Perspective
  • A large fraction of patients with diabetes mellitus require insulin treatment to control glucose metabolism; however, this treatment brings risks of hypoglycaemia and provides suboptimal metabolic control. Transplantation of stem cell-derived pancreatic islet cells could be an ideal solution, which is approaching clinical translation.

    • Giacomo Lanzoni
    • Camillo Ricordi
    News & Views
  • This Review highlights the landmark T1DM and T2DM trials that inform the current guidelines for HbA1c targets, which remain contentious. In addition, the Review discusses individualized HbA1c targets, examines the limitations of HbA1c and considers alternatives for monitoring glycaemic control.

    • Klara R. Klein
    • John B. Buse
    Review Article
  • Obesity activates stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs), such as the p38 and JNK stress kinases, in several tissues, including adipose, liver, skeletal muscle, immune organs and the central nervous system. This Review discusses the role of SAPKs in metabolic control and highlights important discoveries in the field.

    • Ivana Nikolic
    • Magdalena Leiva
    • Guadalupe Sabio
    Review Article
  • A need exists for rapid, cheap and noninvasive diagnostic tests for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Now, a smartphone-based photoplethysmography screening test has been reported to detect T2DM based on a novel digital vascular biomarker, distinct from blood glucose, analysed with deep learning.

    • David C. Klonoff
    News & Views
  • This Review summarizes the adaptations to lipid metabolism that occur in skeletal muscle in response to either a high-fat diet or exercise training. In addition, obesity-associated impairments in fatty acid oxidation capacity and the importance of exercise for overcoming lipid metabolic inflexibility in obesity are discussed.

    • Andreas Mæchel Fritzen
    • Anne-Marie Lundsgaard
    • Bente Kiens
    Review Article
  • Typically, our mechanistic understanding about links between exercise and mortality come from epidemiological and short-period training studies. An initial transcriptomic study shows that decades-long endurance training shifts skeletal muscle gene activity to favour cellular respiration, upholding the consilience of evidence for ‘aerobic’ as a central feature of health and longevity.

    • Lauren Gerard Koch
    • Steven Loyal Britton
    News & Views
  • With immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) technologies increasingly being used in cancer immunotherapy, early data suggest that ICB therapies could be effective in thyroid cancer. This Review discusses our current knowledge of the immune response in thyroid cancers, the latest and ongoing immune-based approaches and the future of immunotherapies in thyroid cancer.

    • Jena D. French
    Review Article
  • Lipoedema is a disorder characterized by the symmetrical accumulation of mechanically compliant adipose tissue in the proximal extremities. This Perspective article proposes a new mechanism for lipoedema, in which dysfunctional caveolin 1 in adipose tissue becomes uncoupled from key feedback loops with matrix metalloproteinase 14, oestrogen receptor and prospero homeobox 1.

    • Ilja L. Kruglikov
    • Nolwenn Joffin
    • Philipp E. Scherer
    Perspective
  • Bone marrow adipose tissue secretes adipokines and is involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. The confined bone marrow cavity could partially explain the resistance of bone marrow adipose tissue to insulin-mediated glucose uptake and its role in systemic energy regulation.

    • Wei Shen
    • Steven B. Heymsfield
    News & Views
  • Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) confers considerable pharmacological benefits on a cluster of obesity-related metabolic complications when administered to preclinical models. This Review discusses FGF21 analogues and mimetics and highlights their efficacy in preclinical models and clinical trials. The challenges in developing FGF21-based therapeutics are also considered.

    • Leiluo Geng
    • Karen S. L. Lam
    • Aimin Xu
    Review Article
  • This Review outlines the latest understanding of the pathogenesis of primary aldosteronism. Current treatment options are also discussed, including the potential for targeted therapies.

    • Maria-Christina Zennaro
    • Sheerazed Boulkroun
    • Fabio L. Fernandes-Rosa
    Review Article
  • This Review highlights the evidence from clinical trials that diet-induced weight loss interventions can be used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. The composition of the diet and the importance of physical exercise programmes are discussed. Lifestyle interventions for prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus are also considered.

    • Faidon Magkos
    • Mads F. Hjorth
    • Arne Astrup
    Review Article