Reviews & Analysis

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  • Studies have shown that the three pathways of regulated necrosis, namely necroptosis, pyroptosis and ferroptosis, can be therapeutically targeted. This Perspective summarizes existing data on the newly characterized cell death pathways in endocrine disorders.

    • Wulf Tonnus
    • Alexia Belavgeni
    • Andreas Linkermann
    Perspective
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are closely linked; effective therapeutics are lacking for both conditions, particularly NAFLD. This Review will discuss therapeutic options for NAFLD, focusing on targeting intermediary metabolism, insulin resistance and T2DM.

    • Daniel Ferguson
    • Brian N. Finck
    Review Article
  • A new study investigates brown adipose tissue (BAT) volume in young, metabolically healthy adults. The focus is on the associations between BAT volume and BMI, waist circumference, whole-body adipose tissue mass, visceral adipose tissue mass and cold-induced BAT activity. Of note, the reported associations differed in men and women.

    • Kirsi A. Virtanen
    • Pirjo Nuutila
    News & Views
  • COVID-19 has been described as a syndemic of COVID-19 and chronic diseases. Obesity has been identified as a contributing factor to morbidity and mortality associated with COVID-19; however, sedentary behaviours and lack of physical activity should also be targeted by health authorities to reduce the risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes.

    Refers to Sallis, R. et al. Physical inactivity is associated with a higher risk for severe COVID-19 outcomes: a study in 48 440 adult patients. Br. J. Sports Med. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2021-104080 (2021).

    • Jean-Pierre Després
    News & Views
  • This Review critically evaluates the studies that support and refute the role of brain insulin in systemic nutrient partitioning. The authors discuss the role of brain insulin in metabolic control and the contribution of brain insulin resistance to metabolic disease and assess the therapeutic potential of enhancing or restoring brain insulin signalling in metabolic disease.

    • Thomas Scherer
    • Kenichi Sakamoto
    • Christoph Buettner
    Review Article
  • This Consensus Statement discusses the management of asymptomatic individuals with a germline mutation in one of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDHx) genes (SDHA, SDHB, SDHC and SDHD), which encode the four subunits of the SDH enzyme. These individuals are at increased risk of phaeochromocytoma and/or paraganglioma.

    • Laurence Amar
    • Karel Pacak
    • Charlotte Lussey-Lepoutre
    Consensus Statement Open Access
  • The adrenal cortex is used to study adult progenitor niches and differentiated cell plasticity. Here, Lyraki and Schedl describe the complex regulation of steroidogenic cell function and renewal in the adult adrenal cortex by sex hormones as well as paracrine and endocrine mechanisms.

    • Rodanthi Lyraki
    • Andreas Schedl
    Review Article
  • The poor prognosis in patients with diabetes mellitus who contract COVID-19 urged physicians to question routine drug treatment for people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. What treatment should we prioritize? So far only observational studies are available, although complementary interventional studies are needed to address this issue.

    • Samy Hadjadj
    • Matthieu Wargny
    News & Views
  • Exercise training can induce robust changes in mitochondria that are beneficial for a range of metabolic health outcomes. However, a recent study suggests there might be an upper limit to the amount of high-intensity training that can be tolerated before disruptions to mitochondrial function and whole-body metabolic homeostasis occur.

    • John A. Hawley
    • David J. Bishop
    News & Views
  • More than 7,000 clinical trials are currently ongoing involving new drugs for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This Review summarizes the novel drugs in development for T2DM that improve insulin sensitivity, stimulate insulin secretion or the incretin axis, or suppress hepatic glucose production.

    • Leigh Perreault
    • Jay S. Skyler
    • Julio Rosenstock
    Review Article
  • Obesity is linked to dysregulated cellular energetics in neoplastic and non-neoplastic cells in the tumour microenvironment. Here, Brown discusses the interdependence of metabolic pathways of oestrogen production in breast tissue and the obesity-related mechanisms that promote breast cancer growth.

    • Kristy A. Brown
    Review Article
  • Optoacoustic imaging enables the non-invasive and label-free imaging of the structure and function of organs, tissues and cells. This Review highlights key progress with optoacoustic imaging technology for applications in endocrinology and metabolism, with a specific focus on multispectral optoacoustic tomography and raster-scan optoacoustic mesoscopy.

    • Angelos Karlas
    • Miguel A. Pleitez
    • Vasilis Ntziachristos
    Review Article
  • Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are now an established cornerstone of cancer therapeutics; however, ICIs are associated with toxicities in various organs, termed immune-related adverse events. This Review highlights current understanding in ICI-induced endocrinopathies, including epidemiology, aetiology, clinical manifestations and approaches to treatment.

    • Jordan J. Wright
    • Alvin C. Powers
    • Douglas B. Johnson
    Review Article
  • Limited pharmacological treatments for uterine leiomyomata (fibroids) are available. Now, two phase III trials lasting 24 weeks showed marked reduction in leiomyoma-related heavy menstrual bleeding with relugolix, a new orally active gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist with add-back oestrogen (to limit bone loss) and progestin (to limit endometrial changes from unopposed oestrogen).

    • Donna D. Baird
    • Quaker E. Harmon
    News & Views
  • Understanding mineralized tissues, such as bone and cartilage, in health and disease requires a thorough knowledge of their structures. This Perspective proposes a new imaging and characterization strategy for mineralized tissue research that utilizes focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy.

    • Steve Weiner
    • Emeline Raguin
    • Ron Shahar
    Perspective
  • This Review focuses on physiological and pathological aspects of the hormonal regulation of biomineralization, which is crucial for skeletal health during adulthood, fetal and neonatal development and pregnancy. The role of mineral intake, serum concentrations of mineral and hormonal regulators of biomineralization are highlighted.

    • Andrew Arnold
    • Elaine Dennison
    • Rajesh V. Thakker
    Review Article
  • It is commonly accepted that dietary habits and cardiometabolic disorders are connected to the composition of the gut microbiota. However, can we really generalize and predict health by screening faecal microorganisms? A study has taken the plunge and identified a vast range of correlations supporting this possibility.

    • Patrice D. Cani
    • Matthias Van Hul
    News & Views
  • White adipocyte metabolism is important for the regulation of systemic metabolism and is often dysregulated in various conditions, such as cancer and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this Review, Langin and colleagues provide an overview of lipid metabolism in white adipocytes and the related metabolism of glucose and discuss how these pathways provide therapeutic targets in metabolic disorders.

    • Pauline Morigny
    • Jeremie Boucher
    • Dominique Langin
    Review Article