Review Articles

  • Review Article |

    Young-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) diagnosed in people aged <40 years has a more rapid disease course that later-onset T2DM. This Review discusses the current and future burden of young-onset T2DM in different populations and highlights the associations of young-onset T2DM with premature mortality and morbidity.

    • Dianna J. Magliano
    • , Julian W. Sacre
    • , Jessica L. Harding
    • , Edward W. Gregg
    • , Paul Z. Zimmet
    •  & Jonathan E. Shaw
  • Review Article |

    The adrenal glands are a source of androgens that all share an oxygen atom on carbon 11 (termed 11-oxyandrogens). This Review focuses on the rapidly expanding knowledge regarding the implications of 11-oxyandrogens in human physiology and disease.

    • Adina F. Turcu
    • , Juilee Rege
    • , Richard J. Auchus
    •  & William E. Rainey
  • Review Article |

    This Review discusses mechanisms of cellular senescence and approaches to target this pathway therapeutically using ‘senolytic’ drugs or inhibitors of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype. In addition, evidence is presented that cellular senescence has a causative role in multiple chronic diseases associated with ageing and/or endocrine diseases.

    • Sundeep Khosla
    • , Joshua N. Farr
    • , Tamara Tchkonia
    •  & James L. Kirkland
  • Review Article |

    This Review discusses the connections between insulin signalling and oncogenic transformation, highlighting the potential effect of insulin as a pro-tumorigenic factor. The latest studies examining new approaches to circumvent systemic insulin feedback to increase the antitumour effect of agents targeting the insulin signalling pathway are discussed.

    • Benjamin D. Hopkins
    • , Marcus D. Goncalves
    •  & Lewis C. Cantley
  • Review Article |

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has genetic and environmental risk factors that result in impaired glucose homeostasis. This Review discusses efforts to identify molecular mechanisms associated with T2DM susceptibility loci and highlights the current human models that are used to study β-cell development and function.

    • Nicole A. J. Krentz
    •  & Anna L. Gloyn
  • Review Article |

    This Review examines the emerging concept that distinct ceramide species in specific cellular compartments can exert specialized functions in obesity-associated deterioration of metabolic homeostasis. Ceramides are therefore potential targets in the development of novel and specific therapies for obesity and obesity-associated diseases.

    • Sarah M. Turpin-Nolan
    •  & Jens C. Brüning
  • Review Article |

    Food is widely assumed to be a zeitgeber, or time cue, for the human circadian system; however, evidence from human trials is scarce. This Review highlights evidence from human studies that food is a zeitgeber and compares findings against formal zeitgeber criteria.

    • Philip Lewis
    • , Henrik Oster
    • , Horst W. Korf
    • , Russell G. Foster
    •  & Thomas C. Erren
  • Review Article |

    Selenium status varies across the world and adverse health effects have been observed at both extremes of intake. This Review discusses the physiological functions of selenium and highlights evidence that selenium status is important in thyroid function. The evidence for selenium supplementation from randomized clinical trials in benign thyroid diseases is also considered.

    • Kristian Hillert Winther
    • , Margaret Philomena Rayman
    • , Steen Joop Bonnema
    •  & Laszlo Hegedüs
  • Review Article |

    This article discusses the role of thyroid hormones in craniofacial bone formation. The clinical consequences of thyroid hormone excess and deficiency are also outlined.

    • Victoria D. Leitch
    • , J. H. Duncan Bassett
    •  & Graham R. Williams
  • Review Article |

    Graves orbitopathy has a negative impact on a patient’s quality of life. This Review provides an overview of the field and outlines the optimal management of Graves orbitopathy. The authors also highlight future research questions to direct future clinical trials.

    • Peter N. Taylor
    • , Lei Zhang
    • , Richard W. J. Lee
    • , Ilaria Muller
    • , Daniel G. Ezra
    • , Colin M. Dayan
    • , George J. Kahaly
    •  & Marian Ludgate
  • Review Article |

    The dominant immune cell type causing pancreatic islet inflammation in individuals with obesity and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus is the macrophage. In this Review, we focus on the characteristics of inflammation in obese or type 2 diabetes mellitus islets and the consequences of this with respect to β-cell function.

    • Wei Ying
    • , Wenxian Fu
    • , Yun Sok Lee
    •  & Jerrold M. Olefsky
  • Review Article |

    In this Review, the authors highlight findings from genome-wide association studies and studies using various omics technologies individually to identify mechanisms of osteoporosis, which is a highly heritable condition. They also summarize current studies of data integration to understand, diagnose and inform the treatment of osteoporosis.

    • Tie-Lin Yang
    • , Hui Shen
    • , Anqi Liu
    • , Shan-Shan Dong
    • , Lei Zhang
    • , Fei-Yan Deng
    • , Qi Zhao
    •  & Hong-Wen Deng
  • Review Article |

    This Review provides an up-to-date overview of the lipolytic effects of growth hormone (GH), setting current knowledge into the context of historical data. In addition, the molecular mechanisms of GH-induced lipolysis and insulin resistance as well as the actions of GH on different adipose tissue depots and adipocyte subsets are discussed.

    • John J. Kopchick
    • , Darlene E. Berryman
    • , Vishwajeet Puri
    • , Kevin Y. Lee
    •  & Jens O. L. Jorgensen
  • Review Article |

    This Review provides an overview of the extensive crosstalk between adipocytes, resident innate immune cells and the sympathetic nerves that innervate adipose tissue, as well as the changes that occur in these secretory and signalling pathways in obesity.

    • Chelsea M. Larabee
    • , Oliver C. Neely
    •  & Ana I. Domingos
  • Review Article |

    Globally, the incidence of thyroid cancer is on the increase. This Review highlights the epidemiology of thyroid cancer in high-income, middle-income and low-income countries and discusses the prevalence of modifiable individual risk factors and population-level exposures to environmental risk factors.

    • Jina Kim
    • , Jessica E. Gosnell
    •  & Sanziana A. Roman
  • Review Article |

    Circulating microRNAs act as a new class of endocrine factor that can facilitate crosstalk between metabolic organs. This Review highlights obesity-associated and/or adipose tissue-enriched microRNAs and discusses their potential as biomarkers or therapeutics for obesity and related disorders.

    • Chenbo Ji
    •  & Xirong Guo
  • Review Article |

    This Review discusses the effects of space flight in low Earth orbit on reproductive end points in humans and experimental animals. The effects of simulated microgravity, hypergravity and experimentally generated space radiation on reproductive end points are also outlined.

    • Birendra Mishra
    •  & Ulrike Luderer
  • Review Article |

    Although β-cell targeted autoimmune processes and β-cell dysfunction are known to occur in type 1 diabetes mellitus, the precise aetiology and pathological mechanisms are still largely unclear. This Review explores the current knowledge on the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus and describes expected developments in the near future.

    • Jorma Ilonen
    • , Johanna Lempainen
    •  & Riitta Veijola
  • Review Article |

    This Review summarizes the mechanisms of endometriosis and highlights how health-care professionals could rethink endometriosis diagnosis and management. A patient-centred, individualized, multi-modal and interdisciplinary integrated approach should be taken to maximize the quality of the patient’s ‘endometriosis life’.

    • Charles Chapron
    • , Louis Marcellin
    • , Bruno Borghese
    •  & Pietro Santulli
  • Review Article |

    Osteoblasts synthesize bone matrix and work in harmony with bone-resorbing osteoclasts in a continuous bone remodelling cycle. This Review discusses three known osteoblast-secreted endocrine factors (osteocalcin, lipocalin and sclerostin) and highlights how these hormones integrate the metabolic requirements of bone formation with respect to whole-body metabolism.

    • Naomi Dirckx
    • , Megan C. Moorer
    • , Thomas L. Clemens
    •  & Ryan C. Riddle
  • Review Article |

    Metformin is the first-line drug for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is effective in decreasing plasma glucose levels. This review summarizes the glucoregulatory mechanisms of metformin in T2DM and highlights emerging evidence that metformin decreases obesity-induced meta-inflammation and acts in the gastrointestinal tract.

    • Marc Foretz
    • , Bruno Guigas
    •  & Benoit Viollet
  • Review Article |

    Daily TSH secretion profiles are disrupted in some patients with hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. Here, the authors discuss the interconnection between circadian clocks and thyroid function and highlight the possible link between thyroid cancer and disrupted circadian machinery

    • Keisuke Ikegami
    • , Samuel Refetoff
    • , Eve Van Cauter
    •  & Takashi Yoshimura
  • Review Article |

    Adipocytes respond to environmental cues, such as metabolic stress, by releasing endocrine factors that modulate diverse physiological processes. This Review discusses the metabolic functions of adipose tissue-derived endocrine hormones and highlights how these factors might contribute to cardiometabolic diseases.

    • Ludger Scheja
    •  & Joerg Heeren
  • Review Article |

    Obesity among children and adolescents is highly prevalent in both developed and developing countries. This Review discusses data on the early determinants of childhood obesity in order to provide relevant strategies for daily clinical work.

    • Elvira Larqué
    • , Idoia Labayen
    • , Carl-Erik Flodmark
    • , Inge Lissau
    • , Sarah Czernin
    • , Luis A. Moreno
    • , Angelo Pietrobelli
    •  & Kurt Widhalm
  • Review Article |

    The human stress response has evolved to maintain homeostasis under conditions of stress. This Review outlines the role of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis in synchronizing the stress response with circadian regulatory processes and maintaining homeostasis.

    • Georgina Russell
    •  & Stafford Lightman
  • Review Article |

    Turner syndrome is a rare disorder of women associated with complete or partial loss of one X chromosome. This Review presents an updated discussion of the pathogenetic mechanisms and management of Turner syndrome.

    • Claus H. Gravholt
    • , Mette H. Viuff
    • , Sara Brun
    • , Kirstine Stochholm
    •  & Niels H. Andersen
  • Review Article |

    This Review highlights various medical imaging techniques and fracture prediction tools that are used to diagnosis osteoporosis and discusses the potential importance of screening in at-risk populations.

    • Nicholas R. Fuggle
    • , Elizabeth M. Curtis
    • , Kate A. Ward
    • , Nicholas C. Harvey
    • , Elaine M. Dennison
    •  & Cyrus Cooper
  • Review Article |

    This Review discusses the two main functions of the human deiodinases: the homeostatic control of plasma concentrations of thyroid hormone and the control of intracellular T3 concentrations.

    • Cristina Luongo
    • , Monica Dentice
    •  & Domenico Salvatore
  • Review Article |

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare and aggressive neoplasm that arises in the adrenal gland cortex. This Review highlights how genomics can be used to stratify ACC and potentially improve clinical care, outcomes and patient quality of life.

    • Joakim Crona
    •  & Felix Beuschlein
  • Review Article |

    The blood–brain barrier (BBB), which is widely known as the border that separates circulating blood from the brain, is also a secretory body. This Review examines the various ways in which the BBB exhibits endocrine-related properties.

    • William A. Banks
  • Review Article |

    In this Review, Etienne Challet discusses the dual modulation of food intake by homeostatic and circadian processes, describes the mechanisms regulating feeding time and highlights the beneficial effects of correctly timed eating, as opposed to the negative metabolic consequences of mistimed eating.

    • Etienne Challet
  • Review Article |

    Women with pre-existing diabetes mellitus are at increased risk of complications during pregnancy. This Review outlines the latest management strategies that have been designed to reduce this risk, including diet and pharmacotherapy options.

    • Lene Ringholm
    • , Peter Damm
    •  & Elisabeth R. Mathiesen
  • Review Article |

    Prolactin is mainly known for its involvement in the regulation of lactation. In this Review, the authors describe other newly discovered roles of prolactin in human health and disease and discuss new data on the pathological states of hypoprolactinaemia and hyperprolactinaemia.

    • Valérie Bernard
    • , Jacques Young
    •  & Nadine Binart
  • Review Article |

    T3 and T4 are synthesized in the thyroid gland in a process that involves the iodoglycoprotein thyroglobulin. In this Review, we consider the role of thyroglobulin in thyroid hormonogenesis from evolutionary, biochemical, molecular, cellular and physiological angles.

    • Cintia E. Citterio
    • , Héctor M. Targovnik
    •  & Peter Arvan
  • Review Article |

    In this Review, new insights into the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis are integrated within a novel conceptual framework that can be used to re-appreciate adrenocortical function and dysfunction in the context of critical illness.

    • Arno Téblick
    • , Bram Peeters
    • , Lies Langouche
    •  & Greet Van den Berghe
  • Review Article |

    Overgrowth syndromes are a heterogeneous group of rare disorders characterized by generalized or segmental excessive growth. This Review discusses the clinical and molecular diagnosis, tumour risk and recommendations for tumour screening for the most prevalent generalized and segmental overgrowth syndromes.

    • Frédéric Brioude
    • , Annick Toutain
    • , Eloise Giabicani
    • , Edouard Cottereau
    • , Valérie Cormier-Daire
    •  & Irene Netchine
  • Review Article |

    Exercise has many beneficial effects on brain health, but how exercise is sensed by the brain has not been well understood. This Review describes evidence that supports the existence of a muscle–brain endocrine loop, in which muscle-induced peripheral factors enable direct crosstalk between muscle and brain.

    • Bente Klarlund Pedersen
  • Review Article |

    This Review discusses how signals arising from activity are perceived by cell populations and how the cells respond to them, with particular emphasis on the musculoskeletal and adipose systems. The potential of exercise as a non-invasive and non-pharmacological method of regulating osteoporosis and obesity is also outlined.

    • Gabriel M. Pagnotti
    • , Maya Styner
    • , Gunes Uzer
    • , Vihitaben S. Patel
    • , Laura E. Wright
    • , Kirsten K. Ness
    • , Theresa A. Guise
    • , Janet Rubin
    •  & Clinton T. Rubin
  • Review Article |

    The prevalence of obesity has increased worldwide in the past ~50 years, reaching pandemic levels. Remarkable regional differences exist in obesity prevalence and trends, which might help to identify societal causes of obesity and provide guidance for the most promising intervention strategies.

    • Matthias Blüher
  • Review Article |

    Interest in motilin is growing, as several studies have shown its relevance in the control of hunger and regulation of food intake in both health and disease. The current state of knowledge and implications for therapy are summarized in this Review.

    • Eveline Deloose
    • , Wout Verbeure
    • , Inge Depoortere
    •  & Jan Tack
  • Review Article |

    In this Review, the authors explore the role of gut microbial metabolites derived from carbohydrate fermentation and protein fermentation in body weight control, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    • Emanuel E. Canfora
    • , Ruth C. R. Meex
    • , Koen Venema
    •  & Ellen E. Blaak
  • Review Article |

    Exercise is used to prevent and treat metabolic diseases. Finding the optimum time for exercise is important as skeletal muscle has many clock-controlled genes. This Review summarizes the current literature regarding the consequence of exercise at different times of the day.

    • Brendan M. Gabriel
    •  & Juleen R. Zierath
  • Review Article |

    In obesity management, the prevention of weight regain after weight loss is a major challenge. In this Review, the authors discuss mechanisms associated with adipose tissue that are connected to weight regain, including cellular stress, extracellular matrix remodelling and inflammation.

    • Marleen A. van Baak
    •  & Edwin C. M. Mariman
  • Review Article |

    Insulin resistance is a main determinant in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Here, the authors review the physiological links between circadian clocks and insulin sensitivity and present current evidence for a relationship between circadian disruption and insulin resistance.

    • Dirk Jan Stenvers
    • , Frank A. J. L. Scheer
    • , Patrick Schrauwen
    • , Susanne E. la Fleur
    •  & Andries Kalsbeek