Review Articles

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  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are closely linked; effective therapeutics are lacking for both conditions, particularly NAFLD. This Review will discuss therapeutic options for NAFLD, focusing on targeting intermediary metabolism, insulin resistance and T2DM.

    • Daniel Ferguson
    • Brian N. Finck
    Review Article
  • This Review critically evaluates the studies that support and refute the role of brain insulin in systemic nutrient partitioning. The authors discuss the role of brain insulin in metabolic control and the contribution of brain insulin resistance to metabolic disease and assess the therapeutic potential of enhancing or restoring brain insulin signalling in metabolic disease.

    • Thomas Scherer
    • Kenichi Sakamoto
    • Christoph Buettner
    Review Article
  • The adrenal cortex is used to study adult progenitor niches and differentiated cell plasticity. Here, Lyraki and Schedl describe the complex regulation of steroidogenic cell function and renewal in the adult adrenal cortex by sex hormones as well as paracrine and endocrine mechanisms.

    • Rodanthi Lyraki
    • Andreas Schedl
    Review Article
  • More than 7,000 clinical trials are currently ongoing involving new drugs for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This Review summarizes the novel drugs in development for T2DM that improve insulin sensitivity, stimulate insulin secretion or the incretin axis, or suppress hepatic glucose production.

    • Leigh Perreault
    • Jay S. Skyler
    • Julio Rosenstock
    Review Article
  • Obesity is linked to dysregulated cellular energetics in neoplastic and non-neoplastic cells in the tumour microenvironment. Here, Brown discusses the interdependence of metabolic pathways of oestrogen production in breast tissue and the obesity-related mechanisms that promote breast cancer growth.

    • Kristy A. Brown
    Review Article
  • Optoacoustic imaging enables the non-invasive and label-free imaging of the structure and function of organs, tissues and cells. This Review highlights key progress with optoacoustic imaging technology for applications in endocrinology and metabolism, with a specific focus on multispectral optoacoustic tomography and raster-scan optoacoustic mesoscopy.

    • Angelos Karlas
    • Miguel A. Pleitez
    • Vasilis Ntziachristos
    Review Article
  • Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are now an established cornerstone of cancer therapeutics; however, ICIs are associated with toxicities in various organs, termed immune-related adverse events. This Review highlights current understanding in ICI-induced endocrinopathies, including epidemiology, aetiology, clinical manifestations and approaches to treatment.

    • Jordan J. Wright
    • Alvin C. Powers
    • Douglas B. Johnson
    Review Article
  • This Review focuses on physiological and pathological aspects of the hormonal regulation of biomineralization, which is crucial for skeletal health during adulthood, fetal and neonatal development and pregnancy. The role of mineral intake, serum concentrations of mineral and hormonal regulators of biomineralization are highlighted.

    • Andrew Arnold
    • Elaine Dennison
    • Rajesh V. Thakker
    Review Article
  • White adipocyte metabolism is important for the regulation of systemic metabolism and is often dysregulated in various conditions, such as cancer and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this Review, Langin and colleagues provide an overview of lipid metabolism in white adipocytes and the related metabolism of glucose and discuss how these pathways provide therapeutic targets in metabolic disorders.

    • Pauline Morigny
    • Jeremie Boucher
    • Dominique Langin
    Review Article
  • This Review summarizes the evidence from clinical trials for the efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the treatment of thyroid cancer. The data from the experience with these drugs in clinical practice are also discussed, and factors that can help clinicians decide when to start or whether to continue tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy are considered.

    • Matti L. Gild
    • Venessa H. M. Tsang
    • Bruce G. Robinson
    Review Article
  • Alterations of RET kinase have been found in diverse thyroid cancer subtypes. This Review describes the RET mutations and gene fusions that can occur in thyroid cancer and highlights specific RET kinase inhibitors that are in clinical and preclinical use.

    • Domenico Salvatore
    • Massimo Santoro
    • Martin Schlumberger
    Review Article
  • This Review provides an update on the clinical management of MEN1-related tumours. Epidemiology, the clinical picture, diagnostic work-up and main lines of treatment for MEN1-related tumours are summarized. Controversial therapeutic aspects and issues that still need to be addressed are also discussed.

    • Abdallah Al-Salameh
    • Guillaume Cadiot
    • Philippe Chanson
    Review Article
  • This Review discusses the susceptibility of the fetal immune system to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and the consequences on pancreatic islet development, which might influence the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus in individuals affected by IUGR. The potential for immunomodulation as a therapeutic approach to treat IUGR-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus will also be discussed.

    • Thea N. Golden
    • Rebecca A. Simmons
    Review Article
  • This Review summarizes the physiological functions, pharmacology and clinical studies of G protein-coupled receptors that are specific for lipid metabolite ligands. The challenges associated with the clinical development of therapeutics for type 2 diabetes mellitus that target these G protein-coupled receptors are also discussed.

    • Julien Ghislain
    • Vincent Poitout
    Review Article
  • This Review highlights how obesity and impaired metabolic health increase complications and mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and summarizes the consequences of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 for organ function. In addition, there is a discussion on the implications of the COVID-19 pandemic for the obesity pandemic.

    • Norbert Stefan
    • Andreas L. Birkenfeld
    • Matthias B. Schulze
    Review Article
  • This Review focuses on the current understanding of the molecular and cellular pathology of diabetic retinopathy. The primary focus is on the cellular signalling between the neuronal and vascular retina that promotes formation of the inner blood–retinal barrier of the retinal vasculature as an important point of intervention.

    • David A. Antonetti
    • Paolo S. Silva
    • Alan W. Stitt
    Review Article
  • This Review summarizes clinical practice for differentiated thyroid cancer, highlighting advances in therapy, including surgery and the use of radioactive iodine, as well as improved diagnostic tools and prognostic classifications. Different management strategies for patients with low-risk, intermediate-risk and high-risk differentiated thyroid cancer are discussed.

    • Martin Schlumberger
    • Sophie Leboulleux
    Review Article
  • This Review examines the evidence that β-cells are active participants in the dialogue with the immune system during the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus. The authors suggest that therapies targeting β-cell health, vitality and function might prove essential, in combination with immunotherapy, to change the course of events leading to β-cell destruction.

    • Bart O. Roep
    • Sofia Thomaidou
    • Arnaud Zaldumbide
    Review Article