Review Articles

Filter By:

  • The current increasing rates of obesity are paralleled by a rise in the prevalence of chronic kidney disease. This Review outlines the potential mechanisms by which obesity might influence kidney function, but also presents evidence for the regulation of body weight by the kidney.

    • Kevin Yau
    • Rachel Kuah
    • Tony K. T. Lam
    Review Article
  • COVID-19 has been linked to an increase in thyroid dysfunction among current and past patients. This Review discusses and evaluates the evidence for COVID-19 causing thyroid dysfunction, including after COVID-19 vaccination and during long COVID.

    • David Tak Wai Lui
    • Chi Ho Lee
    • Karen Siu Ling Lam
    Review Article
  • Sarcopenic obesity is a growing clinical problem because of ageing populations and the increasing prevalence of obesity. This Review highlights the new consensus definition and diagnostic criteria for sarcopenic obesity, and provides an overview of the pathogenesis, clinical outcomes, and management of this syndrome.

    • Carla M. Prado
    • John A. Batsis
    • Mario Siervo
    Review Article
  • Iatrogenic adrenal insufficiency (IAI) is the most common form of adrenal insufficiency in adult patients. This comprehensive Review aims to aid clinicians in identifying who is at risk of IAI, how to approach screening of at-risk populations and how to treat patients with IAI.

    • Julie Martin-Grace
    • Maria Tomkins
    • Mark Sherlock
    Review Article
  • The protein complex mTORC1 is a key regulator of cellular metabolism in response to energy availability. This Review discusses the role of mTORC1 in regulating energy expenditure and the implications for the development and treatment of obesity.

    • Camille Allard
    • Cristina Miralpeix
    • Daniela Cota
    Review Article
  • In this Review, the emerging cellular and molecular mechanisms by which obesity impairs key aspects of immunity are discussed, including changes in the abundance of key hormones, dysregulation of adipose-tissue-derived extracellular vesicles and dysregulation of polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism.

    • Saame Raza Shaikh
    • Melinda A. Beck
    • Nancie J. MacIver
    Review Article
  • This Review describes a promising, bidirectional role for ghrelin in the interaction between circadian rhythms and metabolism. The authors explore how ghrelin affects outputs of circadian rhythm — including neuronal activity, circulating growth hormone levels, locomotor activity and eating behaviour — and discuss how circadian rhythms influence ghrelin expression.

    • Soumya S. Kulkarni
    • Omprakash Singh
    • Jeffrey M. Zigman
    Review Article
  • This Review describes the luteal phase of natural menstrual cycles and in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. The authors highlight the need for luteal phase support during IVF, outlining various luteal phase support regimens, mechanisms for luteal phase deficiency and potential biomarkers of endometrial receptivity.

    • Akanksha Garg
    • Agata P. Zielinska
    • Ali Abbara
    Review Article
  • This Review discusses notable discoveries in pituitary stem cell function and highlights important areas for current and future research, including the use of pituitary organoids for the advancement of pituitary stem cell biology and pituitary organogenesis as well as potential therapeutic approaches.

    • María Inés Pérez Millán
    • Leonard Y. M. Cheung
    • Sally A. Camper
    Review Article
  • Key papers on the role of nutrition and metabolic cues in puberty timing were published in 1963, and there have been many advances in this field in the subsequent 60 years. This Review discusses the latest advances in basic and translational sciences underlying the nutritional and metabolic control of pubertal development.

    • Greg M. Anderson
    • Jennifer W. Hill
    • Carol F. Elias
    Review Article
  • Genomic data from patients with thyroid cancer, combined with information on mutation-specific mechanisms from experimental models, is transforming the thyroid cancer research field. This Review summarizes the genetic alterations involved in follicular cell-derived thyroid cancer initiation and progression and their biological and clinical implications.

    • Iñigo Landa
    • Maria E. Cabanillas
    Review Article
  • Thyroid hormones have key functions throughout the body. However, thyroid function declines with age and thyroid diseases increase in prevalence. This Review outlines our current knowledge about how thyroid function changes with age and the implications for patient care.

    • Diana van Heemst
    Review Article
  • This Review discusses the current understanding of adipose tissue macrophages and T cells. Discussion of these cells is used as an example of how metabolic tissue niches can dictate immune cell function in unique ways that diverge from the classic understanding of leukocyte biology.

    • Ramiah D. Jacks
    • Carey N. Lumeng
    Review Article
  • Inter-organ crosstalk is increasingly understood as an important mechanism contributing to insulin resistance and β-cell failure, the key features of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This Review discusses mediators of inter-organ crosstalk in type 2 diabetes mellitus, its pathogenesis and its related complications.

    • Georgia Xourafa
    • Melis Korbmacher
    • Michael Roden
    Review Article
  • Evidence indicates an elevated risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus after breast cancer treatment, particularly for endocrine therapy. This Review outlines the evidence for adverse metabolic effects of endocrine therapies in humans. Potential mechanisms, informed by preclinical research, for the increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus are discussed.

    • Nisha S. Thomas
    • Rebecca L. Scalzo
    • Elizabeth A. Wellberg
    Review Article
  • This Review discusses newly discovered functions of pituitary hormones on bone, adipose tissue and the brain. Mechanisms of pituitary hormone actions on somatic organs and neural function are outlined. The role of dysregulated pituitary hormone function in multiple diseases and the potential for targeting ligands and receptors therapeutically are discussed.

    • Mone Zaidi
    • Tony Yuen
    • Se-Min Kim
    Review Article
  • This Review discusses the key principles and uses of engineered neurobiological tools, such as optogenetics and chemogenetics. The authors discuss examples of their use in the metabolism field and highlight important points to consider when choosing an experimental technique.

    • Paul Nicholas Mirabella
    • Henning Fenselau
    Review Article
  • This Review examines the origins of marrow adipocytes and their function under normal or pathological conditions. Regulation of bone marrow adipose tissue by nutrient status is considered, as well as the interactions between bone marrow adipose tissue, haematopoietic cells of the bone marrow and the bone.

    • Clifford J. Rosen
    • Mark C. Horowitz
    Review Article