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  • Comment |

    The first International Symposium on Phaeochromocytoma in 2005 was followed by considerable progress in the field, largely owing to the many collaborations and networks stimulated by that and subsequent meetings. The rich hereditary background of phaeochromocytomas has since provided for strong interdisciplinary links of genetics with personalized diagnostics, imaging and therapeutic interventions.

    • Karel Pacak
    • , Graeme Eisenhofer
    •  & Arthur S. Tischler
  • Comment |

    This Comment article provides a behind-the-scenes perspective and update of our 2016 Review, which discussed possible factors contributing to thyroid cancer incidence trends worldwide. We also highlight promising research directions that are improving the understanding of thyroid cancer aetiology.

    • Cari M. Kitahara
    •  & Julie A. Sosa
  • Comment |

    In 2019, we published a Review on the relevance of gut microbial metabolites in obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Here, we highlight the importance of the balance between colonic proteolytic and saccharolytic metabolite production for metabolic health and the need to focus on more subgroup-based or personalized nutritional approaches.

    • Emanuel E. Canfora
    •  & Ellen E. Blaak
  • Comment |

    In the past decade, the prevalence of obesity and related comorbidities has continued to increase across the globe, prompting many countries to adopt policies to improve diet quality. Here, we discuss key nutrition policies that have been implemented in the past few years and consider future priorities for global obesity prevention.

    • Vasanti S. Malik
    • , Walter C. Willet
    •  & Frank B. Hu
  • Comment |

    Islet inflammation (insulitis) in type 1 diabetes mellitus is triggered by a deleterious dialogue between β-cells and the immune system, inducing β-cell dysfunction and death. This concept, outlined in our 2009 Review, has been confirmed and extended. Here, we provide a brief update of the field and outline key pending questions.

    • Decio L. Eizirik
    •  & Maikel L. Colli
  • Comment |

    In 2012, we were invited by Nature Reviews Endocrinology to write a Review titled Muscles, exercise and obesity: skeletal muscle as a secretory organ’. At the time, following our findings in the 2000s, we knew the concept of skeletal muscle as an endocrine organ was important. Eight years on, the magnitude of the importance of this concept surprises us.

    • Mark A. Febbraio
    •  & Bente K. Pedersen
  • Comment |

    The sudden outbreak and global spread of COVID-19 represents one of the most profound societal and public health challenges in modern times. In this Comment, we call attention to the possibility that the societal strategies implemented to oppose COVID-19 might have long-term, negative effects on the obesity epidemic.

    • Christoffer Clemmensen
    • , Michael Bang Petersen
    •  & Thorkild I. A. Sørensen
  • Comment |

    The COVID-19 pandemic has broad implications for the care of patients with bone fragility. A dramatic surge in fractures and related mortality is expected in the next few months. We pledge to intensify the current efforts to improve the management of bone health, and to prioritize fragility fracture care and prevention.

    • Nicola Napoli
    • , Ann L. Elderkin
    • , Douglas P. Kiel
    •  & Sundeep Khosla
  • Comment |

    Preliminary data suggest that people with obesity are at increased risk of severe COVID-19. However, as data on metabolic parameters (such as BMI and levels of glucose and insulin) in patients with COVID-19 are scarce, increased reporting is needed to improve our understanding of COVID-19 and the care of affected patients.

    • Norbert Stefan
    • , Andreas L. Birkenfeld
    • , Matthias B. Schulze
    •  & David S. Ludwig
  • Comment |

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension are the most common comorbidities in patients with coronavirus infections. Emerging evidence demonstrates an important direct metabolic and endocrine mechanistic link to the viral disease process. Clinicians need to ensure early and thorough metabolic control for all patients affected by COVID-19.

    • Stefan R. Bornstein
    • , Rinkoo Dalan
    • , David Hopkins
    • , Geltrude Mingrone
    •  & Bernhard O. Boehm
  • Comment |

    Studies uncovering the cellular mechanisms of adaptation to varying oxygen levels were recognized with the 2019 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Here, we focus on the remarkable parallels between the pathways regulating oxygen availability and those driving rare neuroendocrine tumours, phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas, and discuss the translational implications of this connection.

    • Patricia L. M. Dahia
    •  & Rodrigo A. Toledo
  • Comment |

    Thyroid status and serum cholesterol levels are intimately linked. Hypothyroidism causes hypercholesterolaemia, which is thought to be resolved after treatment with levothyroxine and normalization of thyroid-stimulating hormone. However, some studies indicate that hypercholesterolaemia persists despite treatment, requiring more frequent use of statins.

    • Antonio C Bianco
    •  & Peter Taylor
  • Comment |

    In the pursuit of understanding metabolic control and energy balance, peripheral nerve communication between adipose tissues and the brain has been largely ignored. This Comment discusses the need for additional research that focuses on the role of adipose peripheral nerve function in the maintenance of energy balance.

    • Kristy L. Townsend
  • Comment |

    The relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), insulin resistance and central obesity is not uniformly applicable to populations worldwide. In this Comment, we discuss the challenge of establishing waist circumference thresholds to predict T2DM in Africa.

    • Anne E. Sumner
    •  & Mohammad Hadi Bagheri
  • Comment |

    For a person with type 1 diabetes mellitus, lifelong insulin treatment is the only therapeutic option. However, increased blood levels of glucose are just a symptom of impaired β-cell function. Approaching the centenary of the first insulin injection, broadening of international therapeutic guidelines to improve diagnostics, as well as monitor and preserve β-cell function, is warranted.

    • Olle Korsgren
    • , Jay S. Skyler
    • , Oskar Skog
    • , Frida Sundberg
    • , Gun Forsander
    •  & Johnny Ludvigsson
  • Comment |

    Emerging evidence demonstrates that an increasing number of novel medications have considerable potential to induce adrenal insufficiency. This condition might lead to acute adrenocortical insufficiency, which is potentially fatal; however, the condition could be avoided if clinicians are more aware of the new findings and their implications.

    • Stefan R. Bornstein
    • , Tobias D. Bornstein
    •  & Cynthia L. Andoniadou
  • Comment |

    The Chinese Famine has been widely interpreted as an important contributor to subsequent epidemics of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Our re-examination of available studies challenges this apparent relationship. The definition of famine exposure and control selection needs more attention in future studies to better understand this potential association.

    • Chihua Li
    • , Elmar W. Tobi
    • , Bastiaan T. Heijmans
    •  & L. H. Lumey
  • Comment |

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is common, disabling and expensive, despite improved glucose-lowering management and guidelines. Its dominant cause is weight gain, with ectopic fat accumulation in vital organs, reflected by a large waist circumference. Addressing the underlying cause, by low-calorie formula diets and integrated support for long-term weight-loss maintenance, produces remissions in almost half the treated population.

    • Michael E. J. Lean
  • Comment |

    A male hormonal contraceptive would be a welcome addition to current family planning efforts. Herein, we summarize efforts to develop such a contraceptive, with a focus on contraceptive efficacy studies and new compounds that might offer advantages in terms of route of administration and longer half-lives compared with older compounds.

    • Stephanie T. Page
    •  & John K. Amory
  • Comment |

    Despite incontrovertible evidence of the harmful effects of endocrine disruptors, a sound public health policy is still absent. Meanwhile, the press has revealed the hindering role of industry lobbyists and conflicts of interest among members of the regulatory bodies. Here, we identify another hindrance; one that stems from current experimental research practices.

    • Ana M. Soto
    •  & Carlos Sonnenschein
  • Comment |

    Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment for severe obesity, but it can have unintended negative psychosocial consequences, including an increased risk of alcohol use disorder. A greater understanding of the psychosocial effects of bariatric surgery will probably improve treatment outcomes.

    • Charlotte A. Hardman
    •  & Paul Christiansen