Browse Articles

  • News & Views |

    A positive association between topical corticosteroid use and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus has been reported in a large European population-based study. However, the increase in risk is small and should not influence the prescribing of topical corticosteroids when clinically indicated.

    • E. C. Johns
    •  & R. M. Reynolds
  • Review Article |

    In this Review, Etienne Challet discusses the dual modulation of food intake by homeostatic and circadian processes, describes the mechanisms regulating feeding time and highlights the beneficial effects of correctly timed eating, as opposed to the negative metabolic consequences of mistimed eating.

    • Etienne Challet
  • News & Views |

    Thyroid ultrasonography is an important element of clinical thyroid diagnostics. Unfortunately, the results of this technique can vary based on the skill and experience of the operator. A new study suggests that assessment of ultrasound images using artificial intelligence has similar sensitivity and improved specificity compared with the judgement of experienced radiologists.

    • Frederik Verburg
    •  & Christoph Reiners
  • Perspective |

    Young people with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) are at risk of vascular complications. In this Perspectives article, M. Loredana Marcovecchio and colleagues present a new framework for managing the risk of vascular complications in young people with T1DM.

    • M. Loredana Marcovecchio
    • , R. Neil Dalton
    • , Denis Daneman
    • , John Deanfield
    • , Timothy W. Jones
    • , H. Andrew W. Neil
    •  & David B. Dunger
  • News & Views |

    Alterations in lipid metabolism are closely linked to disorders such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. A multi-omics study on a mouse genetic reference panel uncovers regulatory networks and potential biomarkers of hepatic lipid metabolism.

    • Joel T. Haas
    •  & Bart Staels
  • News & Views |

    By combining genetic, metagenomic and metabolic data in humans, a recent study has identified causal relationships between the capacity of gut microorganisms to produce short-chain fatty acids, such as butyrate and propionate, and metabolic traits of the host, including insulin response during an oral glucose tolerance test and susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    • Matteo Serino
  • Review Article |

    Women with pre-existing diabetes mellitus are at increased risk of complications during pregnancy. This Review outlines the latest management strategies that have been designed to reduce this risk, including diet and pharmacotherapy options.

    • Lene Ringholm
    • , Peter Damm
    •  & Elisabeth R. Mathiesen
  • Comment |

    The Chinese Famine has been widely interpreted as an important contributor to subsequent epidemics of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Our re-examination of available studies challenges this apparent relationship. The definition of famine exposure and control selection needs more attention in future studies to better understand this potential association.

    • Chihua Li
    • , Elmar W. Tobi
    • , Bastiaan T. Heijmans
    •  & L. H. Lumey
  • Review Article |

    Prolactin is mainly known for its involvement in the regulation of lactation. In this Review, the authors describe other newly discovered roles of prolactin in human health and disease and discuss new data on the pathological states of hypoprolactinaemia and hyperprolactinaemia.

    • Valérie Bernard
    • , Jacques Young
    •  & Nadine Binart
  • News & Views |

    The quality of carbohydrate-rich foods rather than quantity has the strongest effect on major health outcomes. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of prospective studies report lower mortality and reduced incidence of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus and colorectal cancer in people who habitually consume diets rich in fibre and whole grain.

    • Gabriele Riccardi
    •  & Giuseppina Costabile
  • Review Article |

    T3 and T4 are synthesized in the thyroid gland in a process that involves the iodoglycoprotein thyroglobulin. In this Review, we consider the role of thyroglobulin in thyroid hormonogenesis from evolutionary, biochemical, molecular, cellular and physiological angles.

    • Cintia E. Citterio
    • , Héctor M. Targovnik
    •  & Peter Arvan
  • News & Views |

    Jae-Wook Jeong and colleagues report that histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) is downregulated in the endometrium of women with endometriosis. In addition, they show that the loss of HDAC3 is associated with aberrant hormonal signalling and increased fibrosis in the endometrium and impaired endometrial receptivity.

    • Sun-Wei Guo
  • News & Views |

    The causes of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) are unclear; however, a general consensus exists that T1DM is a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease characterized by the selective destruction of insulin-secreting β-cells. Now, two imaging mass cytometry studies of human pancreatic tissue illuminate new biology in the pathogenesis of T1DM.

    • Paolo Pozzilli
    •  & Alberto Signore
  • Review Article |

    In this Review, new insights into the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis are integrated within a novel conceptual framework that can be used to re-appreciate adrenocortical function and dysfunction in the context of critical illness.

    • Arno Téblick
    • , Bram Peeters
    • , Lies Langouche
    •  & Greet Van den Berghe
  • Review Article |

    Overgrowth syndromes are a heterogeneous group of rare disorders characterized by generalized or segmental excessive growth. This Review discusses the clinical and molecular diagnosis, tumour risk and recommendations for tumour screening for the most prevalent generalized and segmental overgrowth syndromes.

    • Frédéric Brioude
    • , Annick Toutain
    • , Eloise Giabicani
    • , Edouard Cottereau
    • , Valérie Cormier-Daire
    •  & Irene Netchine
  • Review Article |

    Exercise has many beneficial effects on brain health, but how exercise is sensed by the brain has not been well understood. This Review describes evidence that supports the existence of a muscle–brain endocrine loop, in which muscle-induced peripheral factors enable direct crosstalk between muscle and brain.

    • Bente Klarlund Pedersen
  • Comment |

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is common, disabling and expensive, despite improved glucose-lowering management and guidelines. Its dominant cause is weight gain, with ectopic fat accumulation in vital organs, reflected by a large waist circumference. Addressing the underlying cause, by low-calorie formula diets and integrated support for long-term weight-loss maintenance, produces remissions in almost half the treated population.

    • Michael E. J. Lean
  • Review Article |

    This Review discusses how signals arising from activity are perceived by cell populations and how the cells respond to them, with particular emphasis on the musculoskeletal and adipose systems. The potential of exercise as a non-invasive and non-pharmacological method of regulating osteoporosis and obesity is also outlined.

    • Gabriel M. Pagnotti
    • , Maya Styner
    • , Gunes Uzer
    • , Vihitaben S. Patel
    • , Laura E. Wright
    • , Kirsten K. Ness
    • , Theresa A. Guise
    • , Janet Rubin
    •  & Clinton T. Rubin
  • Review Article |

    The prevalence of obesity has increased worldwide in the past ~50 years, reaching pandemic levels. Remarkable regional differences exist in obesity prevalence and trends, which might help to identify societal causes of obesity and provide guidance for the most promising intervention strategies.

    • Matthias Blüher
  • News & Views |

    Long-term exercise is an important lifestyle factor that can substantially improve the health of older individuals. A new meta-analysis and systematic review builds on previous studies and provides further evidence that exercise interventions can prevent fall-related injuries and fractures in people aged >60 years.

    • Stephen Lord
  • News & Views |

    A recent study shows that a history of rotating night-shift work and an unhealthy lifestyle are associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), both independently and synergistically. This is the first large-scale, prospective study to quantify how a healthy lifestyle might partially offset T2DM risk in shift workers.

    • Céline Vetter
    •  & Frank A. J. L. Scheer