Outlines of different bacteria, against a background that fades from red to blue.

The individual response to antibiotics and diet — insights into gut microbial resilience and host metabolism

This Review discusses the effect of antibiotic-induced perturbations of the gut microbiome on host metabolic health.


  • An insulin molecule in purple, on a black background

    To mark the centenary of insulin's discovery, Nature Milestones presents a timeline of the past 100 years of diabetes research.

  • A human body with key endocrine structures highlighted.

    The Key Advances in Endocrinology collection offers a unique series of specially commissioned ‘Year in Review’ articles that highlight the key discoveries made each year. In these articles, leading experts describe their key advances of the year, outlining their clinical impact and implications for research.


  • Despite the mounting evidence supporting the use of intermittent fasting as a safe and effective weight loss intervention, many myths about fasting persist in popular culture. Here, we review some common beliefs about intermittent fasting that are not supported by scientific evidence.

    • Krista A. Varady
    • Shuhao Lin
    • Sofia Cienfuegos
  • The recent Consensus Statement on the diagnosis and management of prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas (prolactinomas) drew attention to molecular pathogenetic mechanisms. We comment that somatic screening for SF3B1 hotspot variants in select cases might alert to aggressive tumour behaviour and prompt the timely management and intense follow up of these challenging tumours.

    • Marily Theodoropoulou
    • Stephan Petersenn
    • Gerald Raverot
  • Anti-obesity medications based on incretin hormones have advanced weight control and metabolic health in individuals with obesity. The long-term success of obesity therapeutics could be facilitated by exercise, a vital metabolic ally in enhancing treatment efficacy.

    • Javier Butragueño
    • Jonatan R. Ruiz
    Clinical Outlook
  • Current guidelines for the delay and prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus recommend for people with prediabetes to lose at least 7% of their body weight. Here, we advocate to use glycaemic remission as a goal of prevention in people with prediabetes and those who are at high risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    • Andreas L. Birkenfeld
    • Viswanathan Mohan
Cartoon islets

Islet biology

The endocrine pancreas is composed of clusters of cells, or islets, which secrete endocrine factors important for systemic metabolism, including insulin and glucagon.