A silhouette of a fetus and placenta on a blue and red background.

Fetoplacental oxygen homeostasis in pregnancies with maternal diabetes mellitus and obesity

This Review discusses the metabolic causes of fetal hypoxia in pregnancies with diabetes mellitus and/or obesity and the fetal adaptations to this oxygen deficit.

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Islet biology

The endocrine pancreas is composed of clusters of cells, or islets, which secrete endocrine factors important for systemic metabolism, including insulin and glucagon.
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