Endocrine toxicities of immune checkpoint inhibitors

This Review highlights our current understanding of endocrinopathies induced by immune checkpoint inhibitors, including epidemiology, aetiology, clinical manifestations and approaches to treatment.


  • The number 15 on a blue background.

    To celebrate the 15th anniversary of Nature Reviews Endocrinology, we have collated a collection of some of our most popular articles, as well as a series of Comments discussing six key articles from the past 15 years.

  • A human body with key endocrine structures highlighted.

    The Key Advances in Endocrinology collection offers a unique series of specially commissioned ‘Year in Review’ articles that highlight the key discoveries made each year. In these articles, leading experts describe their key advances of the year, outlining their clinical impact and implications for research.

  • Five women standing next to each other.

    This collection of articles published in the Nature Reviews journals provides in-depth discussions of recent research and medical advances in fields covering women’s health in the broadest sense.

  • A cross section of two teeth.

    This article series includes articles that focus on physiological and pathological aspects of the hormonal regulation of biomineralisation, covering aspects of fetal and neonatal development, osteoporosis and extraskeletal calcification.


Islet biology

Islet biology

The endocrine pancreas is composed of clusters of cells, or islets, which secrete endocrine factors important for systemic metabolism, including insulin and glucagon.

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