A red branching blood vessel, with the appearance of a river delta, on a pink background.

The evolving functions of the vasculature in regulating adipose tissue biology in health and obesity

This Review discusses new insights into adipose tissue endothelial cell biology and alterations linked to obesity.


  • An insulin molecule in purple, on a black background

    To mark the centenary of insulin's discovery, Nature Milestones presents a timeline of the past 100 years of diabetes research.

  • A human body with key endocrine structures highlighted.

    The Key Advances in Endocrinology collection offers a unique series of specially commissioned ‘Year in Review’ articles that highlight the key discoveries made each year. In these articles, leading experts describe their key advances of the year, outlining their clinical impact and implications for research.


    • The year 2023 brought reports of highly effective glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) mono-agonists or combinations with amylin receptor agonists. Results for monomolecular co-agonists that added glucagon receptor and/or glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) receptor agonism to GLP1 receptor activation were also published in 2023. Interestingly, antagonistic GIP receptor antibodies conjugated with a GLP1 agonist were also shown to be effective.

      • Mette M. Rosenkilde
      Year in Review
    • The pathophysiology of endometriosis is underpinned by a complex interplay of inflammatory processes that are responsible for the local and systemic effects of the condition. Recent studies delve further into this inflammatory interplay; using animal models, they identify potential therapeutic tools and remind us to look beyond the endometriotic lesions.

      • Jane E. Girling
      Year in Review
    • One hundred years after the Nobel prize was bestowed on Banting and McLeod for the ‘discovery’ of insulin, we are again seeing major evolutions in the management of type 1 diabetes mellitus, with the prospect of achieving disease control beyond mere management now becoming real. Here, we discuss the latest, most notable developments.

      • Pieter-Jan Martens
      • Chantal Mathieu
      Year in Review
    • Over the past decade, technological advances have enabled cost-efficient, high-throughput analysis of different types of omics data in large human cohorts. Here, we explore insights into the pathophysiology of metabolic disorders revealed through multi-omics studies, discuss novel computational analysis techniques and look at the field’s future directions.

      • Smadar Shilo
      • Eran Segal
      Year in Review
    • Key papers on the role of nutrition and metabolic cues in puberty timing were published in 1963, and there have been many advances in this field in the subsequent 60 years. This Review discusses the latest advances in basic and translational sciences underlying the nutritional and metabolic control of pubertal development.

      • Greg M. Anderson
      • Jennifer W. Hill
      • Carol F. Elias
      Review Article
Cartoon islets

Islet biology

The endocrine pancreas is composed of clusters of cells, or islets, which secrete endocrine factors important for systemic metabolism, including insulin and glucagon.