Reviews & Analysis

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  • This PrimeView highlights the pathophysiology of age-related macular degeneration, and summarizes the diagnosis, management, epidemiology and outlook of this disorder. It accompanies the Primer on this topic by Fleckenstein and colleagues.

  • Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of severe vision loss in the developed world. This Primer describes the different stages of AMD, its epidemiology, the current understanding of its pathophysiology and diagnostic modalities. Additionally, it outlines existing treatment options and highlights the outstanding issues, suggesting future research avenues.

    • Monika Fleckenstein
    • Tiarnán D. L. Keenan
    • Emily Y. Chew
  • This PrimeView highlights the complex interactions between both prothrombotic and antithrombotic mechanisms that underlie trauma-induced coagulopathy.

  • Trauma-induced coagulopathy describes alterations in haemostasis (such as fibrinogen depletion, inadequate thrombin generation, impaired platelet function and dysregulated fibrinolysis) that can result in both uncontrolled bleeding and hypercoagulation, leading to venous thromboembolism and multiple organ failure.

    • Ernest E. Moore
    • Hunter B. Moore
    • Angela Sauaia
  • This PrimeView accompanies the Primer by Pawlik and colleagues and highlights the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, screening, management and the quality of life of patients with liver metastases.

  • Liver metastases are commonly detected in a range of malignancies originating from the pancreas, breast, colon or rectum. This Primer summarizes the epidemiology, mechanisms and diagnosis of liver metastasis, discusses the various treatment options and effects on quality of life, and highlights ongoing and future research areas.

    • Diamantis I. Tsilimigras
    • Pnina Brodt
    • Timothy M. Pawlik
  • This PrimeView highlights the epidemiology of pneumonia, a respiratory infection that can be caused by pathogens whose prevalence varies depending on the geographical area and the site of acquisition (community or healthcare settings).

  • Pneumonia is a respiratory infection of the distal airways; it can be acquired in the community or in the hospital, and it can be caused by several types of bacteria, viruses, fungi and other pathogens.

    • Antoni Torres
    • Catia Cilloniz
    • Tom van der Poll
  • This PrimeView highlights the pathophysiology of tension-type headache and accompanies the Primer article on this topic by Ashina and colleagues.

  • This Primer discusses the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of tension-type headache. This Primer also summarizes the quality of life issues faced by patients and future research priorities in this field.

    • Sait Ashina
    • Dimos D. Mitsikostas
    • Richard B. Lipton
  • This PrimeView highlights the mechanisms of carcinogenesis of gastrointestinal stromal tumours, and summarizes the epidemiology, diagnosis, management, quality of life and outlook of patients with this disease. It accompanies the Primer on this topic by Blay and colleagues.

  • Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) are the most frequent of all sarcomas. In this Primer, Blay et al. present an overview of epidemiology, mechanisms of tumorigenesis and molecular subtypes of GIST. They discuss state-of-the-art GIST diagnosis and treatment, means to improve patient quality of life and outstanding research questions.

    • Jean-Yves Blay
    • Yoon-Koo Kang
    • Margaret von Mehren
  • This PrimeView describes the types of adrenal insufficiency, its epidemiology, mechanisms, diagnosis and management as well as highlights the specific strategies to prevent and treat adrenal crises.

  • Adrenal insufficiency (AI) is an endocrine disorder characterized by adrenal hypofunction, resulting in cortisol deficiency. In this Primer, Hahner and colleagues describe the different types of AI, their epidemiology, pathophysiology and diagnosis. Additionally, the authors discuss specific challenges associated with the long-term management of this disorder and strategies to prevent adrenal crises.

    • Stefanie Hahner
    • Richard J. Ross
    • Marcus Quinkler
  • This PrimeView accompanies the Primer article on Cannabis use and cannabis use disorder by Connor and colleagues, and highlights the future research priorities for this disorder.

  • This Primer by Connor and colleagues reviews the epidemiology of cannabis use, together with the epidemiology, mechanisms, diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cannabis use disorder. This Primer also discusses cannabis policy and the risks associated with high-potency cannabis products.

    • Jason P. Connor
    • Daniel Stjepanović
    • Wayne D. Hall
  • This PrimeView highlights the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, a genetic disorder that is caused by mutations in DMD that prevent production of the muscle isoform of dystrophin.

  • Duchenne muscular dystrophy is an X-linked progressive, muscle-wasting disease that manifests in childhood as difficulties with movement. This Primer by Aartsma-Rus and colleagues discusses the clinical presentation, epidemiology, pathophysiology, genetic diagnosis and treatment of this disorder.

    • Dongsheng Duan
    • Nathalie Goemans
    • Annemieke Aartsma-Rus
  • Penile cancer is a rare disease for which early diagnosis is crucial to avoid poor prognosis and outcomes. This PrimeView highlights the epidemiology, diagnosis, mechanisms and management of penile cancer and accompanies the Primer on this topic by Thomas and colleagues.

  • This Primer discusses the epidemiology of penile cancer and mechanisms underlying its development, including HPV infection. The authors explain contemporary and possible future diagnostic and management approaches in localized and advanced disease and highlight important considerations around the quality of life of affected patients.

    • Anita Thomas
    • Andrea Necchi
    • Maarten Albersen