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  • In shared decision-making, patients and clinicians work together to make care decisions. This method of care is ethically desirable and practically feasible and may be effective in making care fit: forming plans of care that maximally respond to the patient’s situation and priorities while minimally disrupting their lives.

    • Marleen Kunneman
  • Rare diseases remain a formidable public health challenge. The key to unlocking breakthroughs in diagnosis and treatment is fostering dynamic international partnerships and streamlined data sharing. The empowerment of patient advocacy groups is essential, as they are pivotal in driving innovative research and elevating health-care standards for these often under-represented conditions.

    • Domenica Taruscio
    • William A. Gahl
  • Conversational agents (CAs) are computer programs designed to engage in human-like conversations with users. They are increasingly used in digital health applications, for example medical history taking. CAs have potential to facilitate health-care processes when designed carefully, considering quality aspects and are integrated into health-care processes.

    • Kerstin Denecke
  • Historically, the health-care response to natural disasters has been reactive, with responders rushing to the scene using deployable assets to treat those affected. The global community must increase efforts to complement this approach with proactive preparedness and readiness strategies designed to enhance disaster health-care capacity at a local level.

    • Gregory Ciottone
    • Flavio Salio
  • The concept of syndemics specifies which, where and how disease concentrations and interactions emerge and persist. Recognizing multimorbidity within a population or region is fundamental to syndemics because multimorbid conditions often share upstream drivers, including social inequalities. Applying syndemics to health care can inform clinical and policy interventions.

    • Justin Dixon
    • Emily Mendenhall
  • Refugees are a growing and dynamic global population that require theories, programmes and policies to improve community-based integration and health care. Although many gender, cultural and system barriers persist, countries must innovate to support migration flow, universal care coverage, trauma-informed approaches and health equity for refugees.

    • Kevin Pottie
    • Doug Gruner
  • Current medical education propagates bias and power imbalances in medical institutions, which cascade into professional practices and organizations. To serve the needs of all, we need an understanding of how modern medicine was set up, the biases that are embedded in the structures of health care and strategies to transform those structures.

    • Amali U. Lokugamage
    • Rupa Marya
  • Sexual and gender minorities (SGM) experience negative attitudes, stigma, denial of care or low-quality care from health-care providers. Increased awareness and adequate training of health-care professionals and students are required to reduce biases and barriers to care for SGM people.

    • Monica Malta
  • Specific chromosomal abnormalities are associated with development of multiple myeloma and its precursor syndromes. This poster explores the process of plasma cell development, and the types and frequencies of chromosomal abnormalities and other genetic alterations that are involved in development and progression of multiple myeloma.

    • Aneta Mikulasova
    • Gareth J. Morgan
    • Brian A. Walker
  • Planetary and human health are inseparably connected; yet, health-care systems produce considerable amounts of greenhouse gas emissions, waste and pollution. A growing movement to measure and mitigate the health sector’s own climate damage is underway, supported by national policies and clinical innovation.

    • Frances Mortimer
    • David Pencheon
  • Loneliness is associated with increased mortality and a higher risk of some cardiovascular, metabolic and neurological disorders. Co-ordinated approaches at the individual, community and society levels are needed to reduce loneliness.

    • Louise C. Hawkley
  • Financial toxicity, that is, the negative effects of the economic burden of medical care, can lead to poor patient well-being and quality of life. Co-ordinated efforts by those involved in health care, supported by research into remedial approaches, are needed to ease the burden on patients.

    • Maria Pisu
    • Michelle Y. Martin
  • Climate change has multiple negative effects on global public health; reduced quality and quantity of crops result in increased food and financial insecurities leading to malnutrition (undernutrition and obesity) and diet-related non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. In addition, food systems substantially contribute to greenhouse gas emissions and a shift towards sustainability is required to preserve human and planetary health.

    • Jessica C. Fanzo
    • Shauna M. Downs
  • Clinical trials often enrol homogeneous populations that do not accurately represent the patient populations served. However, diverse research participation is necessary to establish fair standards of care, minimize outcome disparities and achieve social equity. Here, the authors discuss reasons for reduced trial participation and provide a framework for increasing diversity in clinical trials.

    • Ashwarya Sharma
    • Latha Palaniappan
  • Incarcerated individuals and those with a history of incarceration have high rates of medical conditions yet face several barriers to care. Removing these barriers through adequate funding, enhancing the role of community health systems, and addressing stigma and discrimination are imperative to improve the health and well-being of this population.

    • Lisa B. Puglisi
    • Emily A. Wang
  • Vaccine hesitancy is considered a threat to global health and has been rising worldwide, particularly in resource-limited settings. This Comment discusses this issue and highlights the multiple strategies that can be implemented to address it.

    • Clarissa Simas
    • Heidi J. Larson