Primers

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  • Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is a haematological malignancy characterized by the uncontrolled proliferation of immature lymphoid cells. In this Primer, Pagliaro et al. discuss the epidemiology, mechanisms, diagnosis and treatments of ALL.

    • Luca Pagliaro
    • Sai-Juan Chen
    • Giovanni Roti
    Primer
  • In this Primer, Ashina et al. discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, management and quality of life of patients with trigeminal neuralgia, a chronic neuropathic facial pain disorder involving one or more branches of the trigeminal nerve that causes intense paroxysms of electric shock-like pain.

    • Sait Ashina
    • Carrie E. Robertson
    • Lars Bendtsen
    Primer
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is one of the most common hand conditions caused by an increased pressure on the median nerve in the carpal tunnel in the wrist. In this Primer, Dahlin et al. review the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, management and quality of life of people with CTS; they also highlight occupational risk factors for this condition.

    • Lars B. Dahlin
    • Malin Zimmerman
    • Kevin C. Chung
    Primer
  • Paediatric hydrocephalus is the progressive distension of the cerebral ventricles in infancy or childhood. This Primer discusses the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, screening and treatment of paediatric hydrocephalus in both high-income and low- and middle-income settings.

    • Kristopher T. Kahle
    • Petra M. Klinge
    • Jennifer M. Strahle
    Primer
  • This Primer by Weller and colleagues summarizes the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of glioma in both adults and children.

    • Michael Weller
    • Patrick Y. Wen
    • Guido Reifenberger
    Primer
  • Severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs) are a group of adverse reactions characterized by severe skin eruptions and varying degrees of systemic involvement. In this Primer, Hung et al. summarize current knowledge of epidemiology and mechanisms of SCARs and discuss diagnosis, treatment and quality of life of patients. They also highlight outstanding research questions.

    • Shuen-Iu Hung
    • Maja Mockenhaupt
    • Wen-Hung Chung
    Primer
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a major public health problem affecting ~11–13% of women worldwide. In this Primer, Stener-Victorin et al. review the epidemiology and pathophysiology of PCOS and highlight the latest advances in the diagnosis and management of this syndrome.

    • Elisabet Stener-Victorin
    • Helena Teede
    • Terhi T. Piltonen
    Primer
  • Gastric neuroendocrine neoplasms (gNENs) are rare tumours of the neuroendocrine cells of the stomach and consist of different subtypes with distinct management and prognosis. In this Primer, Campana and colleagues review the complex biology of the various gNEN subtypes and their epidemiology, diagnosis and management, and highlight the unmet needs in the field.

    • Giuseppe Lamberti
    • Francesco Panzuto
    • Davide Campana
    Primer
  • Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis that is resistant to several first-line drugs. MDR-TB is an increasing public health challenge. In this Primer, Dheda et al. summarize the epidemiology and mechanisms, and discuss diagnosis, management and quality of life of patients with MDR-TB.

    • Keertan Dheda
    • Fuad Mirzayev
    • Christoph Lange
    Primer
  • Invasive candidiasis is a fungal disease caused by Candida pathogens. In this Primer, Lass-Flörl et al. summarize current knowledge of epidemiology and mechanisms and discuss the diagnosis, treatment and quality of life of patients with invasive candidiasis. They also highlight outstanding research questions.

    • Cornelia Lass-Flörl
    • Souha S. Kanj
    • Miriam Alisa Govrins
    Primer
  • Retinal detachment describes the separation of the neurosensory retina from the underlying retinal pigment epithelium, leading to impaired vision or vision loss. This Primer discusses the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of this disorder and highlights future research directions.

    • Jonathan B. Lin
    • Raja Narayanan
    • Rajendra S. Apte
    Primer
  • Alkaptonuria is a rare metabolic disease that has multisystemic and debilitating effects. In this Primer, Bernardini et al. summarize current knowledge of epidemiology and mechanisms, and discuss diagnosis, management and quality of life of patients with this disorder. They also highlight outstanding research questions.

    • Giulia Bernardini
    • Daniela Braconi
    • Annalisa Santucci
    Primer
  • This Primer by Zerr et al. discusses the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and potential future treatments for Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease and other human prion diseases.

    • Inga Zerr
    • Anna Ladogana
    • Brian S. Appleby
    Primer
  • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that typically starts in childhood. This Primer summarizes the epidemiology, mechanisms, diagnosis and treatment of ADHD.

    • Stephen V. Faraone
    • Mark A. Bellgrove
    • Jan K. Buitelaar
    Primer
  • Rotator cuff tears occur due to trauma or, most commonly, due to degenerative changes to tendon structure. This Primer summarizes the epidemiology and pathophysiology of this condition, discusses its diagnosis and management, and highlights patients’ quality of life and future research questions.

    • Asheesh Bedi
    • Julie Bishop
    • Brian T. Feeley
    Primer
  • Strongyloidiasis is a helminth infection that is most common in tropical and subtropical regions. In this Primer, Gordon et al. review the global disease burden and risk factors, summarize the pathophysiology, diagnosis and prevention of this parasite infection, and provide an overview of its treatment and areas for future work.

    • Catherine A. Gordon
    • Jürg Utzinger
    • Darren J. Gray
    Primer
  • Perioperative stroke — that is stroke occurring during or within 30 days of surgery — is associated with poor outcomes. This Primer summarizes the epidemiology, mechanisms, diagnosis and treatment of perioperative stroke.

    • Jonathon P. Fanning
    • Bruce C. V. Campbell
    • Steven R. Messé
    Primer
  • Pulmonary hypertension describes a group of disorders characterized by elevated mean pulmonary artery pressure. This Primer reviews the epidemiology and pathophysiology of pulmonary hypertension, discusses diagnosis and management, and provides an overview of current open research questions.

    • Ana Mocumbi
    • Marc Humbert
    • Simon Stewart
    Primer
  • Central neuropathic pain (CNP), that is, pain caused by a lesion of disease of the central somatosensory nervous system, severely impacts quality of life. In this Primer, Finnerup and colleagues review the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation and diagnosis of CNP as well as discuss common therapeutic strategies and unmet clinical needs in this field.

    • Jan Rosner
    • Daniel C. de Andrade
    • Nanna B. Finnerup
    Primer
  • Typhoid fever is an invasive bacterial disease associated with bloodstream infection. This Primer summarizes the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, prevention and management of typhoid fever. This Primer also discusses how this disease affects patients’ quality of life and suggests future research directions.

    • James E. Meiring
    • Farhana Khanam
    • Melita A. Gordon
    Primer