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  • Planetary and human health are inseparably connected; yet, health-care systems produce considerable amounts of greenhouse gas emissions, waste and pollution. A growing movement to measure and mitigate the health sector’s own climate damage is underway, supported by national policies and clinical innovation.

    • Frances Mortimer
    • David Pencheon
    Comment
  • Loneliness is associated with increased mortality and a higher risk of some cardiovascular, metabolic and neurological disorders. Co-ordinated approaches at the individual, community and society levels are needed to reduce loneliness.

    • Louise C. Hawkley
    Comment
  • Financial toxicity, that is, the negative effects of the economic burden of medical care, can lead to poor patient well-being and quality of life. Co-ordinated efforts by those involved in health care, supported by research into remedial approaches, are needed to ease the burden on patients.

    • Maria Pisu
    • Michelle Y. Martin
    Comment
  • Climate change has multiple negative effects on global public health; reduced quality and quantity of crops result in increased food and financial insecurities leading to malnutrition (undernutrition and obesity) and diet-related non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. In addition, food systems substantially contribute to greenhouse gas emissions and a shift towards sustainability is required to preserve human and planetary health.

    • Jessica C. Fanzo
    • Shauna M. Downs
    Comment
  • Clinical trials often enrol homogeneous populations that do not accurately represent the patient populations served. However, diverse research participation is necessary to establish fair standards of care, minimize outcome disparities and achieve social equity. Here, the authors discuss reasons for reduced trial participation and provide a framework for increasing diversity in clinical trials.

    • Ashwarya Sharma
    • Latha Palaniappan
    Comment
  • Incarcerated individuals and those with a history of incarceration have high rates of medical conditions yet face several barriers to care. Removing these barriers through adequate funding, enhancing the role of community health systems, and addressing stigma and discrimination are imperative to improve the health and well-being of this population.

    • Lisa B. Puglisi
    • Emily A. Wang
    Comment
  • Vaccine hesitancy is considered a threat to global health and has been rising worldwide, particularly in resource-limited settings. This Comment discusses this issue and highlights the multiple strategies that can be implemented to address it.

    • Clarissa Simas
    • Heidi J. Larson
    Comment
  • Homeless people face tremendous social and structural barriers to health care that contribute to high morbidity and mortality. Here, the authors discuss that collaborations between health systems and social services are needed to improve health and well-being in this population.

    • Michael Liu
    • Stephen W. Hwang
    Comment
  • Many critically ill patients with COVID-19 are expected to face long-lasting physical, cognitive and/or mental health impairments. Here, the authors discuss the role of critical care and rehabilitation in improving recovery.

    • Megan M. Hosey
    • Dale M. Needham
    Comment
  • Collaboration between authors and journal staff can contribute to expand the reach of Primers, including to areas where they would be most useful.

    • Madhukar Pai
    Comment