Browse Articles

  • Primer |

    Barrett oesophagus (BE) is a precursor lesion to oesophageal adenocarcinoma and involves intestinal metaplasia (replacement of squamous epithelium with columnar epithelium) in response to gastro-oesophageal reflux. This Primer summarizes the latest research about BE, including improvements in treatment and disease management.

    • Yonne Peters
    • , Ali Al-Kaabi
    • , Nicholas J. Shaheen
    • , Amitabh Chak
    • , Andrew Blum
    • , Rhonda F. Souza
    • , Massimiliano Di Pietro
    • , Prasad G. Iyer
    • , Oliver Pech
    • , Rebecca C. Fitzgerald
    •  & Peter D. Siersema
  • PrimeView |

    Barrett oesophagus (BE) is a precursor lesion to oesophageal adenocarcinoma. This PrimeView discusses the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of BE.

  • PrimeView |

    Various causes can underlie dilated cardiomyopathy, including genetic mutations, infections and inflammation, but the common end result is dilation of the ventricles, which leads to impaired contractility and heart failure.

  • Primer |

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is characterized by ventricular enlargement and impaired contractility without an underlying ischaemic origin. DCM has heterogeneous aetiologies (including gene mutations, infections and inflammation) and clinical presentations and can eventually result in heart failure.

    • Heinz-Peter Schultheiss
    • , DeLisa Fairweather
    • , Alida L. P. Caforio
    • , Felicitas Escher
    • , Ray E. Hershberger
    • , Steven E. Lipshultz
    • , Peter P. Liu
    • , Akira Matsumori
    • , Andrea Mazzanti
    • , John McMurray
    •  & Silvia G. Priori
  • Primer |

    Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder that is caused by autoantibodies against components of the neuromuscular junction. This Primer summarizes the epidemiology, mechanisms, diagnosis and treatment of myasthenia gravis and discusses the quality-of-life issues faced by patients.

    • Nils Erik Gilhus
    • , Socrates Tzartos
    • , Amelia Evoli
    • , Jacqueline Palace
    • , Ted M. Burns
    •  & Jan J. G. M. Verschuuren
  • PrimeView |

    This PrimeView accompanies the Primer on Myasthenia gravis by Gilhus et al. and focuses on disease mechanisms.

  • PrimeView |

    This PrimeView highlights oesophageal atresia, a congenital abnormality of the oesophagus that requires surgical reconstruction soon after birth.

  • Primer |

    Oesophageal atresia (EA) is a congenital abnormality of the oesophagus that is caused by incomplete embryonic compartmentalization of the foregut. This Primer summarizes the latest research in the field of EA, including recommendations on the management and long-term follow-up of patients born with EA.

    • Marinde van Lennep
    • , Maartje M. J. Singendonk
    • , Luigi Dall’Oglio
    • , Fréderic Gottrand
    • , Usha Krishnan
    • , Suzanne W. J. Terheggen-Lagro
    • , Taher I. Omari
    • , Marc A. Benninga
    •  & Michiel P. van Wijk
  • Primer |

    The spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are a group of autosomal dominant progressive disorders characterized by loss of balance and coordination and slurred speech. This Primer discusses the epidemiology of SCAs, the complex mechanisms underlying them and how they are diagnosed and managed in the clinic.

    • Thomas Klockgether
    • , Caterina Mariotti
    •  & Henry L. Paulson
  • PrimeView |

    This illustrated PrimeView discusses the epidemiology of spinocerebellar ataxias, the complex mechanisms underlying them and how they are diagnosed and managed in the clinic.

  • Primer |

    As a result of surgery or radiotherapy as treatment for cancer, functional components of the lymphatic system are partially removed or damaged, resulting in lymphoedema (accumulation of extracellular fluid in tissues). This Primer discusses this important adverse effect of cancer treatment that has substantial effects on the quality of life of patients.

    • Stanley G. Rockson
    • , Vaughan Keeley
    • , Sharon Kilbreath
    • , Andrzej Szuba
    •  & Anna Towers
  • PrimeView |

    This PrimeView accompanies the Primer by Rockson and colleagues and highlights the available therapies for lymphoedema, which is a frequent complication of cancer treatment that can severely affect quality of life.

  • PrimeView |

    Acromegaly is a hormonal disorder that is usually caused by a growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma. This PrimeView highlights the pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of acromegaly.

  • Primer |

    Acromegaly is a hormonal disorder that is usually caused by a growth hormone-secreting pituitary tumour. This Primer by Colao and colleagues reviews the pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of acromegaly and discusses the quality of life of patients and future outlooks.

    • Annamaria Colao
    • , Ludovica F. S. Grasso
    • , Andrea Giustina
    • , Shlomo Melmed
    • , Philippe Chanson
    • , Alberto M. Pereira
    •  & Rosario Pivonello
  • PrimeView |

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the rapid onset of noncardiogenic pulmonary oedema, hypoxaemia and the need for mechanical ventilation in hospitalized patients. This PrimeView highlights the pillars of treatment for patients with ARDS.

  • Primer |

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the rapid onset of noncardiogenic pulmonary oedema, hypoxaemia and the need for mechanical ventilation in hospitalized patients. This Primer describes the risk factors for ARDS, the underlying pulmonary damage and repair in ARDS and the long-term consequences for survivors.

    • Michael A. Matthay
    • , Rachel L. Zemans
    • , Guy A. Zimmerman
    • , Yaseen M. Arabi
    • , Jeremy R. Beitler
    • , Alain Mercat
    • , Margaret Herridge
    • , Adrienne G. Randolph
    •  & Carolyn S. Calfee
  • PrimeView |

    This PrimeView highlights the mechanisms underlying pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, a syndrome characterized by abnormal accumulation of alveolar surfactant in the lungs and dysfunction of the alveolar macrophages.

  • Primer |

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis comprises a group of diseases with different pathogenetic mechanisms but a common outcome — the progressive accumulation of alveolar surfactant in the lungs and dysfunction of alveolar macrophages, which result in respiratory failure and increased risk of secondary infections.

    • Bruce C. Trapnell
    • , Koh Nakata
    • , Francesco Bonella
    • , Ilaria Campo
    • , Matthias Griese
    • , John Hamilton
    • , Tisha Wang
    • , Cliff Morgan
    • , Vincent Cottin
    •  & Cormac McCarthy
  • Primer |

    Radiotherapy is used in >50% of patients with cancer but may be associated with short-term toxicity and long-term consequences. This Primer summarizes the mechanisms by which normal tissues are affected by irradiation, the techniques to mitigate such damage and how to treat the symptoms of radiotherapy toxicity.

    • Dirk De Ruysscher
    • , Gabriele Niedermann
    • , Neil G. Burnet
    • , Shankar Siva
    • , Anne W. M. Lee
    •  & Fiona Hegi-Johnson
  • PrimeView |

    Radiotherapy can be used with curative intent or to palliate symptoms in many patients with cancer. This PrimeView explores how irradiation to nearby adjacent tissues can be associated with short-term toxicity and long-term consequences.

  • PrimeView |

    This PrimeView accompanies the Primer on Medulloblastoma by Pfister et al., and describes the quality of life issues faced by patients with this disease.

  • Primer |

    This Primer by Pfister and colleagues reviews the molecular genetics, diagnosis and management of medulloblastoma and touches upon the quality of life of patients and future outlooks.

    • Paul A. Northcott
    • , Giles W. Robinson
    • , Christian P. Kratz
    • , Donald J. Mabbott
    • , Scott L. Pomeroy
    • , Steven C. Clifford
    • , Stefan Rutkowski
    • , David W. Ellison
    • , David Malkin
    • , Michael D. Taylor
    • , Amar Gajjar
    •  & Stefan M. Pfister
  • PrimeView |

    This illustrated PrimeView provides an overview of the epidemiology, clinical features, cellular mechanisms and management of the main forms of Kaposi sarcoma.

  • Primer |

    Kaposi sarcoma is a rare cancer that typically presents with multiple pigmented skin lesions, but may take an aggressive course characterised by lesion ulceration, oedema and visceral organ involvement. This Primer describes the epidemiology, clinical features, cellular mechanisms and management of the main forms of Kaposi sarcoma.

    • Ethel Cesarman
    • , Blossom Damania
    • , Susan E. Krown
    • , Jeffrey Martin
    • , Mark Bower
    •  & Denise Whitby
  • PrimeView |

    The WHO defines female subfertility as failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after 12 months of regular intercourse or due to impairment of a woman’s capacity to reproduce. This PrimeView highlights some of the mechanisms that may contribute to this condition.

  • Primer |

    Subfertility affects one in six couples worldwide and is associated with emotional distress and reduced quality of life. This Primer by Farquhar and colleagues discusses the causes, diagnosis and treatment of female subfertility.

    • Cynthia M. Farquhar
    • , Siladitya Bhattacharya
    • , Sjoerd Repping
    • , Sebastiaan Mastenbroek
    • , Mohan S. Kamath
    • , Jane Marjoribanks
    •  & Jacky Boivin
  • Primer |

    An estimated 20% of all patients with cancer will develop brain metastases, with the majority of brain metastases occurring in those with lung and breast cancer and melanoma. This Primer describes the mechanisms by which cancer cells migrate to the brain and the key advances necessary to improve the prognosis for patients with brain metastases.

    • Achal Singh Achrol
    • , Robert C. Rennert
    • , Carey Anders
    • , Riccardo Soffietti
    • , Manmeet S. Ahluwalia
    • , Lakshmi Nayak
    • , Solange Peters
    • , Nils D. Arvold
    • , Griffith R. Harsh
    • , Patricia S. Steeg
    •  & Steven D. Chang
  • PrimeView |

    This PrimeView highlights the current treatment of brain metastases, which occur in approximately 20% of patients with cancer.

  • Primer |

    Coeliac disease is an immune-mediated enteropathy driven by dietary gluten present in wheat, rye and barley. This Primer discusses the risk factors and immune mechanisms of coeliac disease and highlights future treatment options beyond the gluten-free diet.

    • Katri Lindfors
    • , Carolina Ciacci
    • , Kalle Kurppa
    • , Knut E. A. Lundin
    • , Govind K. Makharia
    • , M. Luisa Mearin
    • , Joseph A. Murray
    • , Elena F. Verdu
    •  & Katri Kaukinen
  • PrimeView |

    This PrimeView highlights the pathophysiology of coeliac disease, a systemic disorder driven by the ingestion of dietary gluten and characterized by diverse intestinal and extraintestinal manifestations.

  • Primer |

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in children. This Primer highlights RMS epidemiology and disease mechanisms and presents the state of the art in clinical care, including diagnostics, risk-based disease management and prevention of late treatment effects.

    • Stephen X. Skapek
    • , Andrea Ferrari
    • , Abha A. Gupta
    • , Philip J. Lupo
    • , Erin Butler
    • , Janet Shipley
    • , Frederic G. Barr
    •  & Douglas S. Hawkins
  • PrimeView |

    This illustrated PrimeView highlights rhabdomyosarcoma epidemiology, disease mechanisms, diagnosis, risk-based disease management, and prevention of late treatment effects.

  • PrimeView |

    This PrimeView accompanies the Primer on Low back pain by Vlaeyen and colleagues, and highlights the management of this condition.

  • Primer |

    Low back pain is one of the leading causes of years lived with disability worldwide. This Primer by Vlaeyen and colleagues reviews the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of low back pain and discusses the potential contributors, underlying mechanisms and neurobiology of back pain.

    • Johan W. S. Vlaeyen
    • , Chris G. Maher
    • , Katja Wiech
    • , Jan Van Zundert
    • , Carolina Beraldo Meloto
    • , Luda Diatchenko
    • , Michele C. Battié
    • , Marielle Goossens
    • , Bart Koes
    •  & Steven J. Linton
  • PrimeView |

    This illustrated PrimeView summarizes the pathophysiology, epidemiology, diagnosis and management of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (PKD) and autosomal recessive PKD.

  • Primer |

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (PKD) and autosomal recessive PKD are progressive cilia-related disorders that often lead to chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. This Primer provides an overview of the current knowledge of PKD pathogenesis and its treatment.

    • Carsten Bergmann
    • , Lisa M. Guay-Woodford
    • , Peter C. Harris
    • , Shigeo Horie
    • , Dorien J. M. Peters
    •  & Vicente E. Torres
  • Primer |

    Neonatal abstinence syndrome refers to the signs and symptoms in a neonate that are caused by the cessation of prenatal exposure (via placental transfer) to various substances. In particular, opioid use or misuse during pregnancy can lead to neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome.

    • Mara G. Coyle
    • , Susan B. Brogly
    • , Mahmoud S. Ahmed
    • , Stephen W. Patrick
    •  & Hendrée E. Jones
  • PrimeView |

    This PrimeView accompanies the Primer by Coyle and colleagues and highlights how the optimal treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome begins prenatally, by identifying pregnant women with opioid use or misuse and providing them with medical and social support.

  • Author Correction |

    • Massimo Filippi
    • , Amit Bar-Or
    • , Fredrik Piehl
    • , Paolo Preziosa
    • , Alessandra Solari
    • , Sandra Vukusic
    •  & Maria A. Rocca
  • Primer |

    Bronchiectasis refers to dilatation in the bronchi, as detected by radiological examination. Often the result of other diseases, bronchiectasis is also a disease in its own right and can lead to chronic infections, inflammation, airway damage and, ultimately, reduced lung function and respiratory failure.

    • James D. Chalmers
    • , Anne B. Chang
    • , Sanjay H. Chotirmall
    • , Raja Dhar
    •  & Pamela J. McShane
  • PrimeView |

    This PrimeView highlights the pathophysiological mechanisms of bronchiectasis: impaired mucociliary clearance and airway obstruction can promote persistent bacterial infections and dysregulated immune responses. These mechanisms can interact and self-perpetuate, leading over time to impaired lung function.

  • Primer |

    Multiple sclerosis is characterized by the formation of demyelination lesions throughout the central nervous system, leading to neurological dysfunction. This Primer provides an overview of the immunopathology, diagnosis and management of multiple sclerosis.

    • Massimo Filippi
    • , Amit Bar-Or
    • , Fredrik Piehl
    • , Paolo Preziosa
    • , Alessandra Solari
    • , Sandra Vukusic
    •  & Maria A. Rocca
  • PrimeView |

    This illustrated PrimeView provides an overview of the immunology, diagnosis and management of multiple sclerosis.

  • PrimeView |

    This PrimeView illustrates the mechanisms, diagnosis and management of gastroparesis; a chronic disorder defined by delayed gastric emptying, which is associated with symptoms of nausea and vomiting.

  • Primer |

    Gastroparesis is a chronic disorder characterized by gastric neuromuscular dysfunction, which causes delayed gastric emptying that is associated with symptoms of nausea and vomiting. This Primer describes different causes of gastroparesis and highlights specific diagnostic tests and management strategies.

    • Michael Camilleri
    • , Victor Chedid
    • , Alexander C. Ford
    • , Ken Haruma
    • , Michael Horowitz
    • , Karen L. Jones
    • , Phillip A. Low
    • , Seon-Young Park
    • , Henry P. Parkman
    •  & Vincenzo Stanghellini
  • Author Correction |

    • Catherine M. Greene
    • , Stefan J. Marciniak
    • , Jeffrey Teckman
    • , Ilaria Ferrarotti
    • , Mark L. Brantly
    • , David A. Lomas
    • , James K. Stoller
    •  & Noel G. McElvaney