A schematic of HIV-associated lung disease

HIV-associated lung disease

HIV is associated with pulmonary diseases. Opportunistic infections include P. jirovecii pneumonia and mycobacterial pneumonia, and cancers include Kaposi sarcoma, lymphoma and primary lung cancer.

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    Sexual and gender minorities (SGM) experience negative attitudes, stigma, denial of care or low-quality care from health-care providers, which contributes to health disparities. Increased awareness and adequate training of health-care professionals and students are required to reduce biases and barriers to timely and high-quality health care for SGM.

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  • Rotator cuff tears occur due to trauma or, most commonly, due to degenerative changes to tendon structure. This Primer summarizes the epidemiology and pathophysiology of this condition, discusses its diagnosis and management, and highlights patients’ quality of life and future research questions.

    • Asheesh Bedi
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  • Strongyloidiasis is a helminth infection that is most common in tropical and subtropical regions. In this Primer, Gordon et al. review the global disease burden and risk factors, summarize the pathophysiology, diagnosis and prevention of this parasite infection, and provide an overview of its treatment and areas for future work.

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  • Perioperative stroke — that is stroke occurring during or within 30 days of surgery — is associated with poor outcomes. This Primer summarizes the epidemiology, mechanisms, diagnosis and treatment of perioperative stroke.

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  • Pulmonary hypertension describes a group of disorders characterized by elevated mean pulmonary artery pressure. This Primer reviews the epidemiology and pathophysiology of pulmonary hypertension, discusses diagnosis and management, and provides an overview of current open research questions.

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  • Central neuropathic pain (CNP), that is, pain caused by a lesion of disease of the central somatosensory nervous system, severely impacts quality of life. In this Primer, Finnerup and colleagues review the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation and diagnosis of CNP as well as discuss common therapeutic strategies and unmet clinical needs in this field.

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  • Conversational agents (CAs) are computer programs designed to engage in human-like conversations with users. They are increasingly used in digital health applications, for example medical history taking. CAs have potential to facilitate health-care processes when designed carefully, considering quality aspects and are integrated into health-care processes.

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  • Historically, the health-care response to natural disasters has been reactive, with responders rushing to the scene using deployable assets to treat those affected. The global community must increase efforts to complement this approach with proactive preparedness and readiness strategies designed to enhance disaster health-care capacity at a local level.

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  • The concept of syndemics specifies which, where and how disease concentrations and interactions emerge and persist. Recognizing multimorbidity within a population or region is fundamental to syndemics because multimorbid conditions often share upstream drivers, including social inequalities. Applying syndemics to health care can inform clinical and policy interventions.

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  • Refugees are a growing and dynamic global population that require theories, programmes and policies to improve community-based integration and health care. Although many gender, cultural and system barriers persist, countries must innovate to support migration flow, universal care coverage, trauma-informed approaches and health equity for refugees.

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  • Current medical education propagates bias and power imbalances in medical institutions, which cascade into professional practices and organizations. To serve the needs of all, we need an understanding of how modern medicine was set up, the biases that are embedded in the structures of health care and strategies to transform those structures.

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  • Sexual and gender minorities (SGM) experience negative attitudes, stigma, denial of care or low-quality care from health-care providers. Increased awareness and adequate training of health-care professionals and students are required to reduce biases and barriers to care for SGM people.

    • Monica Malta
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A group of women with diverse backgrounds and physiques are standing together, supporting each other and looking ahead.

Women’s health

Research into women’s health has suffered from historical neglect and lack of funding.
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