Acute heart failure

Acute heart failure is characterized by signs and symptoms of heart failure. The disorder most commonly occurs in those with chronic heart failure.

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    Vaccine hesitancy is prevalent world-wide. Successful strategies to address hesitancy require knowledge of regional, cultural and economic factors, and tailored training of health-care professionals. Vaccine confidence crises should be addressed swiftly.

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  • Primary lymphoedema (PLE) refers to swelling of parts of the body (usually limbs) caused by anomalies in the development or functioning of the lymphatic system; PLE can result from genetic mutations and can be the only symptom or one of the manifestations of a syndrome.

    • Pascal Brouillard
    • Marlys H. Witte
    • Miikka Vikkula
    Primer
  • Wilms tumour (WT) is the most common renal tumour in infants and young children. This Primer reviews the epidemiology, mechanisms, diagnosis and management of WT. In addition, the authors outline potential opportunities to translate novel biological targets to improve clinical outcomes.

    • Filippo Spreafico
    • Conrad V. Fernandez
    • Kathy Pritchard-Jones
    Primer
  • Histiocytic disorders are characterized by proliferation of cells with macrophage or dendritic cell phenotype and intense inflammation. Clinical signs and symptoms depend on the specific disease and the tissues and organs affected.

    • Kenneth L. McClain
    • Camille Bigenwald
    • Carl E. Allen
    Primer
  • Membranous nephropathy is a glomerular disease that is the most frequent cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults. This Primer reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of this disease and discusses how to improve long-term renal prognosis and quality of life.

    • Pierre Ronco
    • Laurence Beck
    • Jack Wetzels
    Primer
  • Behçet syndrome is a recurrent multiorgan inflammatory disorder and a systemic vasculitis that predominantly affects veins. This Primer reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of Behçet syndrome and describes its effect on patient quality of life and the future outlook for the field.

    • Yusuf Yazici
    • Gulen Hatemi
    • Hasan Yazici
    Primer
  • Cholangiocarcinoma is a highly lethal adenocarcinoma of the hepatobiliary system that can be associated with liver fluke infection but often has no identifiable cause. This Primer reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiological mechanisms, diagnosis and management of cholangiocarcinoma, and highlights the patient experience and future directions.

    • Paul J. Brindley
    • Melinda Bachini
    • Gregory J. Gores
    Primer
  • Clinical trials often enrol homogeneous populations that do not accurately represent the patient populations served. However, diverse research participation is necessary to establish fair standards of care, minimize outcome disparities and achieve social equity. Here, the authors discuss reasons for reduced trial participation and provide a framework for increasing diversity in clinical trials.

    • Ashwarya Sharma
    • Latha Palaniappan
    Comment
  • Incarcerated individuals and those with a history of incarceration have high rates of medical conditions yet face several barriers to care. Removing these barriers through adequate funding, enhancing the role of community health systems, and addressing stigma and discrimination are imperative to improve the health and well-being of this population.

    • Lisa B. Puglisi
    • Emily A. Wang
    Comment
  • Vaccine hesitancy is considered a threat to global health and has been rising worldwide, particularly in resource-limited settings. This Comment discusses this issue and highlights the multiple strategies that can be implemented to address it.

    • Clarissa Simas
    • Heidi J. Larson
    Comment
  • Homeless people face tremendous social and structural barriers to health care that contribute to high morbidity and mortality. Here, the authors discuss that collaborations between health systems and social services are needed to improve health and well-being in this population.

    • Michael Liu
    • Stephen W. Hwang
    Comment
  • Many critically ill patients with COVID-19 are expected to face long-lasting physical, cognitive and/or mental health impairments. Here, the authors discuss the role of critical care and rehabilitation in improving recovery.

    • Megan M. Hosey
    • Dale M. Needham
    Comment
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Women’s health

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