Adrenal insufficiency

Adrenal insufficiency is an endocrine disorder characterized by adrenal hypofunction, primarily resulting in cortisol deficiency.

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    Vaccine hesitancy is prevalent world-wide. Successful strategies to address hesitancy require knowledge of regional, cultural and economic factors, and tailored training of health-care professionals. Vaccine confidence crises should be addressed swiftly.

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  • Behçet syndrome is a recurrent multiorgan inflammatory disorder and a systemic vasculitis that predominantly affects veins. This Primer reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of Behçet syndrome and describes its effect on patient quality of life and the future outlook for the field.

    • Yusuf Yazici
    • Gulen Hatemi
    • Hasan Yazici
    Primer
  • Cholangiocarcinoma is a highly lethal adenocarcinoma of the hepatobiliary system that can be associated with liver fluke infection but often has no identifiable cause. This Primer reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiological mechanisms, diagnosis and management of cholangiocarcinoma, and highlights the patient experience and future directions.

    • Paul J. Brindley
    • Melinda Bachini
    • Gregory J. Gores
    Primer
  • Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a genetic disorder affecting the connective tissue, caused by mutations in FBN1 (which encodes fibrillin-1, a structural component of the extracellular matrix); individuals with MFS usually present with cardiovascular (aortic aneurysms and dissections), skeletal and ocular manifestations.

    • Dianna M. Milewicz
    • Alan C. Braverman
    • Julie De Backer
    Primer
  • Cutaneous T cell lymphoma is a group of lymphomas that initially manifest in the skin. This Primer summarizes the pathophysiology, epidemiology, diagnosis and management of these disorders.

    • Reinhard Dummer
    • Maarten H. Vermeer
    • Egle Ramelyte
    Primer
  • Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a chronic immune-mediated form of arthritis that occurs in some patients with psoriasis. This Primer reviews the epidemiology and pathophysiology of PsA and highlights the challenges in diagnosis and advances in treatment. In addition, the authors discuss the quality of life of patients and outstanding questions in the field.

    • Oliver FitzGerald
    • Alexis Ogdie
    • Philip J. Mease
    Primer
  • Non-union, defined as a fractured bone that does not heal within the expected time or is deemed unable to heal without intervention, represents a complex chronic medical condition characterized by pain and functional and psychosocial disability. In this Primer, Jupiter and colleagues discuss the epidemiology, advances in pathophysiology, diagnosis and management, and the quality of life of patients with non-union.

    • Britt Wildemann
    • Anita Ignatius
    • Jesse B. Jupiter
    Primer
  • Incarcerated individuals and those with a history of incarceration have high rates of medical conditions yet face several barriers to care. Removing these barriers through adequate funding, enhancing the role of community health systems, and addressing stigma and discrimination are imperative to improve the health and well-being of this population.

    • Lisa B. Puglisi
    • Emily A. Wang
    Comment
  • Vaccine hesitancy is considered a threat to global health and has been rising worldwide, particularly in resource-limited settings. This Comment discusses this issue and highlights the multiple strategies that can be implemented to address it.

    • Clarissa Simas
    • Heidi J. Larson
    Comment
  • Homeless people face tremendous social and structural barriers to health care that contribute to high morbidity and mortality. Here, the authors discuss that collaborations between health systems and social services are needed to improve health and well-being in this population.

    • Michael Liu
    • Stephen W. Hwang
    Comment
  • Many critically ill patients with COVID-19 are expected to face long-lasting physical, cognitive and/or mental health impairments. Here, the authors discuss the role of critical care and rehabilitation in improving recovery.

    • Megan M. Hosey
    • Dale M. Needham
    Comment
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