A schematic of the clinical stages of frozen shoulder.

Frozen shoulder

Frozen shoulder is a painful fibroproliferative disorder of the shoulder joint, resulting in a gradual loss of range of motion, which can occur spontaneously or be associated with other diseases.


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    Primers soon to be featured in the journal include Von Willebrand disease, cystic fibrosis and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

  • Increased awareness and training of health-care professionals and students are required to reduce biases and barriers.

    Sexual and gender minorities (SGM) people experience negative attitudes, stigma, denial of care or low-quality care from health-care providers, which contributes to health disparities. Increased awareness and adequate training of health-care professionals and students are required to reduce biases and barriers to timely and high-quality health care for SGM people.

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    Finding it hard to navigate the flood of scientific literature? Take a look at this animation to learn how Nature Reviews can help you stay up-to-date in your field by filtering and highlighting the most impactful research, or visit www.springernature.com/naturereviews


  • Catatonia is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by diverse motor, affective and cognitive–behavioural signs. In this Primer, Hirjak and colleagues review the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, management and quality of life of patients with this disorder.

    • Dusan Hirjak
    • Jonathan P. Rogers
    • Georg Northoff
  • Biliary atresia is a devastating paediatric inflammatory disease of the bile ducts that restricts flow of bile from the liver. In this Primer, Tam et al. summarize current research on biliary atresia, covering its epidemiology, mechanisms, diagnosis and management, quality of life, and future directions for research.

    • Paul K. H. Tam
    • Rebecca G. Wells
    • Mark Davenport
  • Multiple myeloma is a haematological lymphoid malignancy involving tumoural plasma cells. In this Primer, Malard et al. discuss the epidemiology, mechanisms, diagnosis and treatments for multiple myeloma.

    • Florent Malard
    • Paola Neri
    • Mohamad Mohty
  • Acute or chronic exposure to elevations above 2,500 m can lead to altitude illnesses, including acute mountain sickness, high-altitude cerebral or pulmonary oedema, and chronic mountain sickness. In this Primer, Gatterer et al. summarize the epidemiology and pathophysiology of these disorders, discuss diagnosis, prevention and treatment, and highlight areas for future research.

    • Hannes Gatterer
    • Francisco C. Villafuerte
    • Martin Burtscher
  • Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is a haematological malignancy characterized by the uncontrolled proliferation of immature lymphoid cells. In this Primer, Pagliaro et al. discuss the epidemiology, mechanisms, diagnosis and treatments of ALL.

    • Luca Pagliaro
    • Sai-Juan Chen
    • Giovanni Roti
  • In this Primer, Ashina et al. discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, management and quality of life of patients with trigeminal neuralgia, a chronic neuropathic facial pain disorder involving one or more branches of the trigeminal nerve that causes intense paroxysms of electric shock-like pain.

    • Sait Ashina
    • Carrie E. Robertson
    • Lars Bendtsen
  • In shared decision-making, patients and clinicians work together to make care decisions. This method of care is ethically desirable and practically feasible and may be effective in making care fit: forming plans of care that maximally respond to the patient’s situation and priorities while minimally disrupting their lives.

    • Marleen Kunneman
  • Rare diseases remain a formidable public health challenge. The key to unlocking breakthroughs in diagnosis and treatment is fostering dynamic international partnerships and streamlined data sharing. The empowerment of patient advocacy groups is essential, as they are pivotal in driving innovative research and elevating health-care standards for these often under-represented conditions.

    • Domenica Taruscio
    • William A. Gahl
  • Conversational agents (CAs) are computer programs designed to engage in human-like conversations with users. They are increasingly used in digital health applications, for example medical history taking. CAs have potential to facilitate health-care processes when designed carefully, considering quality aspects and are integrated into health-care processes.

    • Kerstin Denecke
  • Historically, the health-care response to natural disasters has been reactive, with responders rushing to the scene using deployable assets to treat those affected. The global community must increase efforts to complement this approach with proactive preparedness and readiness strategies designed to enhance disaster health-care capacity at a local level.

    • Gregory Ciottone
    • Flavio Salio
  • The concept of syndemics specifies which, where and how disease concentrations and interactions emerge and persist. Recognizing multimorbidity within a population or region is fundamental to syndemics because multimorbid conditions often share upstream drivers, including social inequalities. Applying syndemics to health care can inform clinical and policy interventions.

    • Justin Dixon
    • Emily Mendenhall
  • Refugees are a growing and dynamic global population that require theories, programmes and policies to improve community-based integration and health care. Although many gender, cultural and system barriers persist, countries must innovate to support migration flow, universal care coverage, trauma-informed approaches and health equity for refugees.

    • Kevin Pottie
    • Doug Gruner
A group of women with diverse backgrounds and physiques are standing together, supporting each other and looking ahead.

Women’s health

Research into women’s health has suffered from historical neglect and lack of funding.


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