A schematic of the epidermis


Ichthyosis describes dermatological disorders in which the epidermal barrier function is impaired, resulting in transepidermal water loss and a lack of protection from chemical and biological insults.


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    Primers soon to be featured in the journal include Altitude illnesses, Multiple myeloma and Biliary atresia.

  • Increased awareness and training of health-care professionals and students are required to reduce biases and barriers.

    Sexual and gender minorities (SGM) people experience negative attitudes, stigma, denial of care or low-quality care from health-care providers, which contributes to health disparities. Increased awareness and adequate training of health-care professionals and students are required to reduce biases and barriers to timely and high-quality health care for SGM people.

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    Finding it hard to navigate the flood of scientific literature? Take a look at this animation to learn how Nature Reviews can help you stay up-to-date in your field by filtering and highlighting the most impactful research, or visit www.springernature.com/naturereviews


  • Acute or chronic exposure to elevations above 2,500 m can lead to altitude illnesses, including acute mountain sickness, high-altitude cerebral or pulmonary oedema, and chronic mountain sickness. In this Primer, Gatterer et al. summarize the epidemiology and pathophysiology of these disorders, discuss diagnosis, prevention and treatment, and highlight areas for future research.

    • Hannes Gatterer
    • Francisco C. Villafuerte
    • Martin Burtscher
  • Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is a haematological malignancy characterized by the uncontrolled proliferation of immature lymphoid cells. In this Primer, Pagliaro et al. discuss the epidemiology, mechanisms, diagnosis and treatments of ALL.

    • Luca Pagliaro
    • Sai-Juan Chen
    • Giovanni Roti
  • In this Primer, Ashina et al. discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, management and quality of life of patients with trigeminal neuralgia, a chronic neuropathic facial pain disorder involving one or more branches of the trigeminal nerve that causes intense paroxysms of electric shock-like pain.

    • Sait Ashina
    • Carrie E. Robertson
    • Lars Bendtsen
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is one of the most common hand conditions caused by an increased pressure on the median nerve in the carpal tunnel in the wrist. In this Primer, Dahlin et al. review the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, management and quality of life of people with CTS; they also highlight occupational risk factors for this condition.

    • Lars B. Dahlin
    • Malin Zimmerman
    • Kevin C. Chung
  • Paediatric hydrocephalus is the progressive distension of the cerebral ventricles in infancy or childhood. This Primer discusses the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, screening and treatment of paediatric hydrocephalus in both high-income and low- and middle-income settings.

    • Kristopher T. Kahle
    • Petra M. Klinge
    • Jennifer M. Strahle
  • This Primer by Weller and colleagues summarizes the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of glioma in both adults and children.

    • Michael Weller
    • Patrick Y. Wen
    • Guido Reifenberger
  • In shared decision-making, patients and clinicians work together to make care decisions. This method of care is ethically desirable and practically feasible and may be effective in making care fit: forming plans of care that maximally respond to the patient’s situation and priorities while minimally disrupting their lives.

    • Marleen Kunneman
  • Rare diseases remain a formidable public health challenge. The key to unlocking breakthroughs in diagnosis and treatment is fostering dynamic international partnerships and streamlined data sharing. The empowerment of patient advocacy groups is essential, as they are pivotal in driving innovative research and elevating health-care standards for these often under-represented conditions.

    • Domenica Taruscio
    • William A. Gahl
  • Conversational agents (CAs) are computer programs designed to engage in human-like conversations with users. They are increasingly used in digital health applications, for example medical history taking. CAs have potential to facilitate health-care processes when designed carefully, considering quality aspects and are integrated into health-care processes.

    • Kerstin Denecke
  • Historically, the health-care response to natural disasters has been reactive, with responders rushing to the scene using deployable assets to treat those affected. The global community must increase efforts to complement this approach with proactive preparedness and readiness strategies designed to enhance disaster health-care capacity at a local level.

    • Gregory Ciottone
    • Flavio Salio
  • The concept of syndemics specifies which, where and how disease concentrations and interactions emerge and persist. Recognizing multimorbidity within a population or region is fundamental to syndemics because multimorbid conditions often share upstream drivers, including social inequalities. Applying syndemics to health care can inform clinical and policy interventions.

    • Justin Dixon
    • Emily Mendenhall
  • Refugees are a growing and dynamic global population that require theories, programmes and policies to improve community-based integration and health care. Although many gender, cultural and system barriers persist, countries must innovate to support migration flow, universal care coverage, trauma-informed approaches and health equity for refugees.

    • Kevin Pottie
    • Doug Gruner
A group of women with diverse backgrounds and physiques are standing together, supporting each other and looking ahead.

Women’s health

Research into women’s health has suffered from historical neglect and lack of funding.


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