Volume 20 Issue 2, February 2023
News & Views
Perioperative immunotherapy for renal cell carcinoma: looking beyond the data
The first phase III trial to test perioperative immune-checkpoint inhibitor therapy for high-risk renal cell carcinoma yielded highly promising results, leading to regulatory approvals of adjuvant pembrolizumab. However, subsequent phase III trials, including the IMmotion010 trial of adjuvant atezolizumab, did not demonstrate similar benefits. Although molecular biomarkers are urgently needed to better delineate responder subgroups, the unique design of each trial might partially explain some of the patterns identified.
PADA-1 trial: ESR1 mutations in plasma ctDNA guide treatment switching
PADA-1 is the first trial to demonstrate benefit from a treatment-switching strategy guided by active monitoring of ESR1 mutations in plasma circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) from patients with breast cancer. The results of this trial raise important questions about the specific treatment approach tested, and the feasibility of trials incorporating longitudinal ctDNA analyses to anticipate resistance and guide treatment.
Criteria for the translation of radiomics into clinically useful tests
Despite a considerable increase in research output over the past decades, the translation of radiomic research into clinically useful tests has been limited. In this Review, the authors provide 16 key criteria to guide the clinical translation of radiomics with the hope of accelerating the use of this technology to improve patient outcomes.
Predicting tumour radiosensitivity to deliver precision radiotherapy
Although radiotherapy affects multiple cellular pathways, treatments are generally planned with the assumption that all tumours respond similarly to radiation. The authors of this Review summarize the effect of various pathways activated by radiotherapy on tumour responses to radiotherapy and present the current knowledge on genomic classifiers designed to inform treatment decisions.
Advances in the clinical management of uveal melanoma
Although almost all patients with uveal melanoma have localized disease at diagnosis, and despite effective treatment of the primary tumour, metastatic recurrence is common and holds a dismal prognosis. Unlike its cutaneous counterpart, therapeutic advances for uveal melanoma have not been forthcoming, although the recent approval of the first systemic therapy for this disease has ushered in a new era of hope. This Review summarizes the biology of uveal melanoma and the management of primary disease, including molecular risk classification, adjuvant therapy and follow-up strategies. The discussion is then focused on the established and emerging regional and systemic treatments for metastatic uveal melanoma.
Thermal immuno-nanomedicine in cancer
Immunotherapies have dramatically improved the outcomes of a subset of patients with advanced-stage cancers. Nonetheless, most patients will not respond to these agents and adverse events can be severe. In this Review, the authors describe the potential to address these challenges by combining immunotherapies with currently available thermal therapies as well as by using thermal immuno-nanomedicines.