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  • Immune-checkpoint inhibitors and BRAF-targeted therapy have revolutionized the treatment of advanced-stage, unresectable melanoma and have been successfully transitioned into the resectable disease setting as (neo)adjuvant treatments. The expanding range of treatment options available for resectable high-risk melanoma raises questions over selection of the optimal therapeutic strategy and agents for each individual. Furthermore, the use of perioperative therapy has potentially important implications for the management of patients who have disease recurrence. In this Viewpoint, we asked four expert investigators who have been involved in the key studies of perioperative systemic therapies for their perspectives on the optimal management of patients with high-risk melanoma.

    • Alexander M. M. Eggermont
    • Omid Hamid
    • Jason J. Luke
  • Two recent large-cohort studies reinforce the potential predictive capability of gut microbiota for immune-checkpoint inhibitor response and toxicities in patients with melanoma. However, additional investigations are required to understand the mechanistic underpinnings of this complex multifaceted relationship, and how it can be exploited for personalized cancer care.

    • Neal Bhutiani
    • Jennifer A. Wargo
    News & Views
  • In the past decade, treatment devices that combine imaging with targeted irradiation have been developed to deliver MRI-guided radiotherapy (MRIgRT). This treatment modality uses motion management and biological targeting to improve local control rates whilst reducing the radiation delivered to non-malignant tissues. The authors of this Review describe the current state of MRIgRT, and the opportunities and challenges of this radiotherapy approach.

    • Paul J. Keall
    • Caterina Brighi
    • Brendan Whelan
    Review Article
  • To achieve health equity, we advocate for the overrepresentation of particular racial and ethnic minority groups so that analyses of group-specific treatment effects can be optimally powered. A paradigm shift is needed across multiple stakeholders, as well as in the engagement of community programmes, the role of investigators from racial and ethnic minority backgrounds and clinical trial regulations.

    • Scarlett Lin Gomez
    • Chiaojung Jillian Tsai
    News & Views
  • Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are conducted when clinical equipoise between treatment options exists. However, some RCTs in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer continue to use chemotherapy as the control arm several years after chemotherapy was proven inferior to anti-PD-1 antibodies. Here, we highlight why the justifications for using an inferior treatment in the control arm are invalid and offer solutions that are applicable across tumour types.

    • Adi Kartolo
    • Bishal Gyawali
  • The tumour microenvironment includes various diverse immune cell types, each of which might influence tumour progression and response to treatment, particularly with immunotherapies. These cell types include different subtypes of B lymphocytes, which are often associated with tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS) and can have pro-tumour or anti-tumour effects, either through their classical function in antibody production and antigen presentation or other mechanisms. Herein, Fridman et al. discuss the phenotypic heterogeneity of intratumoural B cells and the importance of TLS in their generation, the potential of B cells and TLS as prognostic and/or predictive biomarkers, and novel approaches aiming to enhance the development of TLS and anti-tumour B cells for cancer therapy.

    • Wolf H. Fridman
    • Maxime Meylan
    • Catherine Sautès-Fridman
    Review Article
  • The interaction of tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) with cancer and stromal cells in the tumour microenvironment enables and sustains most of the hallmarks of cancer. The authors of this Review examine the diversity of TAMs in various cancer indications, which is being revisited with the advent of single-cell technologies, and discuss the functional roles of different TAM states, the prognostic and predictive value of TAM-related signatures as well as approaches involving TAMs that are currently being or will soon be tested in clinical trials.

    • Mikael J. Pittet
    • Olivier Michielin
    • Denis Migliorini
    Review Article
  • Over the past decade, iterative improvements to models predicting breast cancer risk have primarily come from new information about genetic risk factors and improvements to mammogram-based risk scores. Epigenetic risk factors offer some potential to further improve risk stratification. However, the recently developed DNA methylation score (the WID-BC index) is not yet convincing for predicting breast cancer risk.

    • Melissa C. Southey
    • Pierre-Antoine Dugué
    News & Views
  • Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a growing public-health threat, with one of the highest mortality risks among non-communicable diseases. Now, researchers have developed a diagnostic tool for NSCLC by mass spectrometry of a targeted panel of lipids. Herein, we discuss key aspects that could facilitate the clinical implementation of this and similar tools in other fields of application.

    • Markus R. Wenk
    • Hyungwon Choi
    News & Views
  • Photoacoustic imaging is a novel imaging technique that provides scalably high levels of spatial resolution at rapid acquisition speed, without the need for radiation or exogenous contrast agents. In this Review, the authors describe the emerging role of this technology in the screening, diagnosis and management of patients with cancer, and provide an overview of the future implementation of this technology.

    • Li Lin
    • Lihong V. Wang
    Review Article
  • Chimeric antigen receptor T cells have revolutionized the treatment of patients with certain haematological malignancies. Nonetheless, an optimal approach to lymphodepleting chemotherapy and/or bridging therapies has yet to be defined in patients receiving these agents. In this Review, the authors describe the various lymphodepletion and/or bridging therapy strategies used, and highlight the need for prospective comparisons in order to determine the safest and most effective approach.

    • Leila Amini
    • Sara K. Silbert
    • Mohamed Abou-el-Enein
    Review Article