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  • A recent study reported the development and validation of the Liver Artificial Intelligence Diagnosis System (LiAIDS), a fully automated system that integrates deep learning for the diagnosis of liver lesions on the basis of contrast-enhanced CT scans and clinical information. This tool improved diagnostic precision, surpassed the accuracy of junior radiologists (and equalled that of senior radiologists) and streamlined patient triage. These advances underscore the potential of artificial intelligence to enhance hepatology care, although challenges to widespread clinical implementation remain.

    • Jeong Min Lee
    • Jae Seok Bae
    News & Views
  • The composition of the gut microbiota has emerged as a tumour-extrinsic factor that modulates response to immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), although the lack of consistency in microbiota signatures across studies has limited their value as reliable biomarkers. Herein, we discuss a recent study in which longitudinal microbiome profiling identified several taxa that are persistently enriched in patients with melanoma and a favourable response to ICIs.

    • Saman Maleki Vareki
    • Diwakar Davar
    News & Views
  • The development and successful phase III testing of the anti-claudin 18.2 antibody zolbetuximab has provided a novel targeted therapy for the 30–40% of patients with strongly claudin 18.2-positive gastric cancers. Furthermore, the development of an effective targeted therapy for a target that does not have a driver role in cancer development provides a novel drug development paradigm. In this Review, the authors describe the development of claudin 18.2-targeted therapies, including zolbetuximab, as well as novel therapies, including chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells, antibody–drug conjugates and bispecific antibodies, all of which have the potential to expand the number of patients who can derive benefit from claudin 18.2-targeted therapies in the near future.

    • Izuma Nakayama
    • Changsong Qi
    • Kohei Shitara
    Review Article
  • Copper is an essential trace element with inherent redox properties and fundamental roles in a diverse range of biological processes; therefore, maintaining copper homeostasis is crucial. In this Review, the authors discuss new insights into the mechanisms by which disrupted copper homeostasis contributes to tumour initiation and development, including the recently defined concepts of cuproplasia (copper-dependent cell growth and proliferation) and cuproptosis (a mitochondrial pathway of cell death triggered by excessive copper exposure). They also discuss potential strategies to exploit cuproplasia and cuproptosis for the treatment of cancer.

    • Daolin Tang
    • Guido Kroemer
    • Rui Kang
    Review Article
  • The benefits and potential harms of mammography-based screening for breast cancer are often a matter of debate. Here, I discuss the promises and limitations of a recent study that tested an artificial intelligence-based tool for the detection of breast cancer in digital mammograms in a large, prospective screening setting.

    • Despina Kontos
    News & Views
  • FGFR inhibitors are now approved for use in patients with advanced-stage urothelial carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma and myeloid or lymphoid neoplasms that harbour certain FGFR alterations. Nonetheless, challenges such as tolerability and acquired resistance limit the clinical potential of these agents. In this Review, the authors summarize the available clinical data on FGFR inhibitors, describe promising novel agents and highlight future research directions that might optimize the efficacy of FGFR-targeted therapies.

    • Masuko Katoh
    • Yohann Loriot
    • Masaru Katoh
    Review Article
  • Patients with early stage hepatocellular carcinoma typically undergo resection, liver transplantation or local ablation; however, 30–50% will have disease recurrence at 3 years. The authors of this Review describe the tumour immune microenvironment and mechanism of action of immunotherapies, and discuss the available evidence from phase II/III trials of neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatment approaches in this setting.

    • Josep M. Llovet
    • Roser Pinyol
    • Richard S. Finn
    Review Article
  • Increasing evidence indicates that signalling networks activated downstream of oncogenic alterations contribute fundamentally to cancer immune evasion, including by promoting the accumulation of regulatory T (Treg) cells and other immunosuppressive cells in the tumour microenvironment (TME). Herein, the authors discuss the mechanisms via which cancers engage Treg cells to evade antitumour immunity, as well as the characteristics of Treg cells in the TME and their roles in resistance to immune-checkpoint inhibitors. Considering these aspects, they propose the concept of ‘immuno-genomic cancer evolution’ for tumorigenesis and the related paradigm of ‘immuno-genomic precision medicine’, postulating that the specific characteristics of cancer, especially genetic profiles that correlate with particular immunosuppressive networks in the TME, are likely to inform individualized strategies for combining molecularly targeted agents with immunotherapies.

    • Shogo Kumagai
    • Kota Itahashi
    • Hiroyoshi Nishikawa
    Review Article
  • In 2023, the US FDA approved several new cancer drugs and biologic agents, including seven small-molecule inhibitors, four bispecific T cell engagers, two anti-PD-1 antibodies and one cell therapy product. Regulatory focus areas included analyses of biomarker-positive subgroups that drive efficacy, equipoise in randomized controlled trials and a new authority to require confirmatory trials be underway before accelerated approval.

    • Kelly J. Norsworthy
    • Rosa J. Lee-Alonzo
    • Richard Pazdur
  • Ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein serine/threonine kinase (ATR) is a mediator of the cellular replication stress response that, upon activation, initiates a cascade of coordinated reactions that ultimately enables DNA repair. This biological function makes ATR an attractive therapeutic target in cancers with elevated replication stress or DNA-repair deficiency. This Review discusses the currently available results from clinical trials testing ATR inhibitors as well as challenges and solutions in the development of this therapeutic class.

    • Natalie Y. L. Ngoi
    • Patrick G. Pilié
    • Timothy A. Yap
    Review Article
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells that function at the interface between innate and adaptive immunity, thereby acting as key mediators of antitumour immune responses and immunotherapy efficacy. In this Review, the authors outline the emerging complexity of intratumoural DC states that is being revealed through single-cell analyses as well as the contributions of different DC subsets to anticancer immunity and the activity of immune-checkpoint inhibitors. The authors also discuss advances in the development of DC-based cancer therapies and considerations for their potential combination with other anticancer therapies.

    • Ignacio Heras-Murillo
    • Irene Adán-Barrientos
    • David Sancho
    Review Article