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  • Liquid biopsy assays of diverse cancer-associated molecular alterations in blood, including genomic, epigenomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomics changes, offer considerable opportunities for early detection of cancer as well as improved management of the disease. In this Perspective, the authors review key advances in liquid biopsy-based multi-omics approaches for biomarker discovery. They also introduce the ‘nano-omics’ paradigm, whereby nanotechnology tools are used to capture and enrich various cancer-derived analytes from biofluids for subsequent omics analyses, with the aim of developing novel biomarker panels for early cancer detection.

    • Lois Gardner
    • Kostas Kostarelos
    • Marilena Hadjidemetriou
  • Radiotheranostics enables the clinician to image and then target lesions using the same probe. Despite this appealing potential, interest in the field of radiotheranostics has long been constrained by a lack of expertise, high infrastructure costs and the availability of non-radioactive alternative approaches. Nonetheless, several recent successes have led to renewed research interest. In this Review, the authors summarize the current challenges and opportunities in this rapidly emerging area.

    • Lisa Bodei
    • Ken Herrmann
    • Jason S. Lewis
    Review Article
  • A recent study not only confirms mounting evidence that technology-facilitated symptom monitoring improves care and should be considered for all patients with cancer, but also suggests that patient navigators can help to deliver such interventions. Herein we discuss how such an approach can minimize disparities and maximize access to culturally appropriate patient-centred care.

    • Gabrielle B. Rocque
    • Abby R. Rosenberg
    News & Views
  • Neuroblastomas are tumours of sympathetic origins typically seen in infants (≤5 years of age). In this Review, the authors describe progress in the treatment of patients with neuroblastoma, which has resulted in considerable improvements in survival outcomes over the past several decades. The authors then summarize ongoing attempts to personalize therapy in patients with high-risk disease, and to safely de-escalate therapy in those with low-risk disease.

    • Bo Qiu
    • Katherine K. Matthay
    Review Article
  • Timely and comprehensive updating of treatment guidelines remains a challenge and necessity in medical oncology. Herein we discuss our assessment of how trial results with four off-patent drugs have been considered for integration into major guidelines in the absence of a commercial sponsor, in which we found reasons for concern.

    • Gauthier Bouche
    • Lydie Meheus
  • Immune-checkpoint inhibitors have revolutionized the treatment of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Recently, indications for immune-checkpoint inhibitors have expanded from advanced-stage NSCLC to adjuvant, and now neoadjuvant, therapy for resectable NSCLC, with three cycles of preoperative chemoimmunotherapy achieving superior pathological complete response rates and event-free survival compared with chemotherapy alone in the phase III CheckMate 816 trial.

    • Boris Sepesi
    • Stephen G. Swisher
    News & Views
  • Patients with non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) harbouring oncogenic EGFR or ALK alterations can benefit from therapies targeting these alterations, although acquired resistance to these agents is common. Third-generation inhibitors have extended the response durations of many patients with NSCLCs harbouring these alterations, albeit with differing patterns of resistance to those associated with earlier-generation agents. Here, the authors describe the mechanisms of acquired resistance to third-generation EGFR and ALK inhibitors and provide insights into future research directions in this area.

    • Alissa J. Cooper
    • Lecia V. Sequist
    • Jessica J. Lin
    Review Article
  • Several PI3K pathway inhibitors are currently approved as cancer treatments; however, finding an acceptable therapeutic window to target this key signalling cascade linking cancer growth with metabolism has proven challenging and the clinical results to date have arguably been disappointing. In this Review, Vasan and Cantley discuss the effects of PI3K pathway alterations on signalling and metabolism in solid tumours as well as past and present efforts to improve the somewhat limited clinical efficacy of PI3K pathway inhibitors, with a particular focus on PI3Kα in breast cancers.

    • Neil Vasan
    • Lewis C. Cantley
    Review Article