Browse Articles

  • Review Article |

    The authors of this Review discuss treatments currently available for patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (focusing in those of the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx and larynx). Advances in surgical and non-surgical approaches (mainly combinations of radiotherapy and chemotherapy) are discussed, including the first immunotherapeutic agents approved for these malignancies.

    • John D. Cramer
    • , Barbara Burtness
    • , Quynh Thu Le
    •  & Robert L. Ferris
  • Review Article |

    Neutrophils accumulate in the circulation of patients with cancer, and the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio is a widely used biomarker. However, the effects of neutrophils on tumour development and progression, and the efficacy of therapies, remain relatively unknown. In this Review, the authors draw on data from animal models and patients with cancer to provide an overview of the effects of neutrophils in cancer.

    • Merav E. Shaul
    •  & Zvi G. Fridlender
  • Correspondence |

    • Ethan B. Ludmir
    • , Anita Mahajan
    • , Verity Ahern
    • , Thankamma Ajithkumar
    • , Claire Alapetite
    • , Valérie Bernier-Chastagner
    • , Ranjit S. Bindra
    • , Andrew J. Bishop
    • , Stephanie Bolle
    • , Paul D. Brown
    • , Christian Carrie
    • , Anthony J. Chalmers
    • , Eric L. Chang
    • , Caroline Chung
    • , Karin Dieckmann
    • , Natia Esiashvili
    • , Lorenza Gandola
    • , Amol J. Ghia
    • , Vinai Gondi
    • , David R. Grosshans
    • , Semi B. Harrabi
    • , Gail Horan
    • , Danny J. Indelicato
    • , Rakesh Jalali
    • , Geert O. Janssens
    • , Mechthild Krause
    • , Nadia N. Laack
    • , Normand Laperriere
    • , Anne Laprie
    • , Jing Li
    • , Karen J. Marcus
    • , Susan L. McGovern
    • , Thomas E. Merchant
    • , Kenneth W. Merrell
    • , Laetitia Padovani
    • , Jeannette Parkes
    • , Arnold C. Paulino
    • , Rudolf Schwarz
    • , Helen A. Shih
    • , Luis Souhami
    • , Erik P. Sulman
    • , Roger E. Taylor
    • , Nicola Thorp
    • , Beate Timmermann
    • , Greg Wheeler
    • , Suzanne L. Wolden
    • , Kristina D. Woodhouse
    • , Debra N. Yeboa
    • , Torunn I. Yock
    • , Rolf-Dieter Kortmann
    •  & Mary Frances McAleer
  • Correspondence |

    • Kenneth Aldape
    • , Kevin M. Brindle
    • , Louis Chesler
    • , Rajesh Chopra
    • , Amar Gajjar
    • , Mark R. Gilbert
    • , Nicholas Gottardo
    • , David H. Gutmann
    • , Darren Hargrave
    • , Eric C. Holland
    • , David T. W. Jones
    • , Johanna A. Joyce
    • , Pamela Kearns
    • , Mark W. Kieran
    • , Ingo K. Mellinghoff
    • , Melinda Merchant
    • , Stefan M. Pfister
    • , Steven M. Pollard
    • , Vijay Ramaswamy
    • , Jeremy N. Rich
    • , Giles W. Robinson
    • , David H. Rowitch
    • , John H. Sampson
    • , Michael D. Taylor
    • , Paul Workman
    •  & Richard J. Gilbertson
  • Review Article |

    Approximately 50% of patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) are cured with chemotherapy. However, patients with relapsed and/or refractory DLBCL have few other treatment options. In this Review, the authors describe emerging data on genetically targeted therapies for patients with DLBCL and how these might improve patient outcomes.

    • Yi Miao
    • , L. Jeffrey Medeiros
    • , Yong Li
    • , Jianyong Li
    •  & Ken H. Young
  • News & Views |

    In a landmark analysis, investigators of the Multicentric Italian Lung Detection (MILD) trial have confirmed 10-year mortality reductions with lung cancer screening using low-dose helical CT (LDCT). These data complement the reduced lung cancer-specific mortality reported in the National Lung Screening Trial and reinforce the rationale for broad implementation of LDCT screening in high-risk populations.

    • Matthew B. Schabath
    •  & Denise R. Aberle
  • News & Views |

    In recent decades, cancer survival has improved dramatically, resulting in a growing population of cancer survivors with chronic health needs and disease risks. While large epidemiological studies are useful in tracking broad trends in health outcomes of cancer survivors, they lack the level of detail needed to inform the delivery of appropriate clinical care and optimal allocation of resources.

    • Eden R. Brauer
    •  & Patricia A. Ganz
  • Perspective |

    The oligometastatic paradigm challenges the prevailing view of metastasis as a disseminated process and proposes the existence of a spectrum of biological virulence within metastatic lesions. The authors present evidence for this heterogeneity and discuss how it affects the staging and treatment of patients with metastatic cancer.

    • Sean P. Pitroda
    •  & Ralph R. Weichselbaum
  • News & Views |

    Identification of factors predicting recurrence of breast cancer is a long-standing goal, ranging from classical clinicopathological factors through to immunohistochemical assays of receptor levels and, more recently, the expression levels of several genes. A new paper now explores novel expression markers, especially for late recurrence of oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.

    • Jack Cuzick
  • Review Article |

    Immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have dramatically improved the survival of patients with certain forms of cancer; however, these agents also have adverse effects that are often quite different to those of more traditional cancer therapies. In this Review, the authors describe the epidemiology, treatment and management of the various immune-related adverse events that can occur in patients receiving ICIs.

    • Filipe Martins
    • , Latifyan Sofiya
    • , Gerasimos P. Sykiotis
    • , Faiza Lamine
    • , Michel Maillard
    • , Montserrat Fraga
    • , Keyvan Shabafrouz
    • , Camillo Ribi
    • , Anne Cairoli
    • , Yan Guex-Crosier
    • , Thierry Kuntzer
    • , Olivier Michielin
    • , Solange Peters
    • , Georges Coukos
    • , Francois Spertini
    • , John A. Thompson
    •  & Michel Obeid
  • Comment |

    Breast oncologists are intimately familiar with managing treatment-related adverse events of endocrine, cytotoxic and targeted therapies, but the approval of immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) for metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) poses new challenges. Herein, we discuss the safety of ICIs in metastatic TNBC, with an emphasis on immune-related adverse events.

    • Nina D’Abreo
    •  & Sylvia Adams
  • Review Article |

    The therapeutic options currently available for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) include immune-checkpoint inhibitors, novel targeted agents and combination strategies, and thus optimal patient selection and treatment sequencing are important. The authors review relevant aspects of the molecular biology of metastatic RCC, with an emphasis on biomarkers, and suggest tailored algorithms to individualize and guide treatment approaches

    • Ritesh R. Kotecha
    • , Robert J. Motzer
    •  & Martin H. Voss
  • Review Article |

    The metabolic conditions in tumours can result in phenotypic reprogramming of non-tumour cells, including immune cells, in the tumour microenvironment. This Review provides an overview of the pathways of cancer metabolism that intersect with immunometabolism, typically resulting in immunosuppression, with a focus on how these metabolic pathways could be targeted in order to enhance anticancer immunity and immunotherapy.

    • Xiaoyun Li
    • , Mathias Wenes
    • , Pedro Romero
    • , Stanley Ching-Cheng Huang
    • , Sarah-Maria Fendt
    •  & Ping-Chih Ho
  • News & Views |

    Glioblastoma remains essentially incurable, and new therapeutic approaches are urgently needed. Now, the findings of three serial tissue-based studies suggest that immune-checkpoint inhibition can modify the glioblastoma microenvironment. Following these encouraging observations, the results of two phase III trials of immune-checkpoint inhibition in newly diagnosed glioblastoma, with larger cohorts of patients, are eagerly anticipated.

    • Michael Weller
    •  & Emilie Le Rhun
  • Review Article |

    Immunotherapy with immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) is a new pillar in the treatment of cancer but can a have range of immune-related adverse effects, including some rare neurological toxicities that constitute paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNSs). In this Review, the authors provide an overview of PNSs, the associations of these conditions with ICI therapy and recommendations for the prevention and management of ICI-associated PNSs.

    • Francesc Graus
    •  & Josep Dalmau
  • News & Views |

    Using the example of the recently reported phase III MAIA trial, we emphasize herein the requirement to dig deeper into trial designs and end points to determine their appropriateness for the questions at hand and to assess whether a benefit in terms of the primary end point — even if statistically significant and seemingly clinically meaningful — is sufficient to warrant a change in clinical practice.

    • Prashant Kapoor
    •  & S. Vincent Rajkumar
  • Review Article |

    The development of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy is an important advance in the treatment of cancer. Herein, the authors outline the key limitations of CAR T cell therapy, with a focus on mechanisms of resistance, and discuss strategies to improve the efficacy and broaden the applicability of this promising therapeutic approach.

    • Nirali N. Shah
    •  & Terry J. Fry
  • Review Article |

    Patients with lymphoma typically receive chemotherapy as the first-line treatment. However, patients who fail to respond or develop relapsed disease often have poor outcomes. In this Review, the authors summarize the available data on therapeutics designed to modulate epigenetic changes, including DNA methylation and histone acetylation, in patients with lymphoma and describe the most promising directions of future research.

    • David Sermer
    • , Laura Pasqualucci
    • , Hans-Guido Wendel
    • , Ari Melnick
    •  & Anas Younes
  • News & Views |

    Inhibition of the NKG2A immune checkpoint restores natural killer cell and T cell effector function in preclinical cancer models. In addition, NKG2A blockade in combination with other therapeutic antibodies is showing encouraging responses in a subset of patients with metastatic colorectal or head and neck cancer. However, established biomarkers of response are lacking, and larger trials are needed to enable firm conclusions to be drawn about whether NKG2A inhibition complements existing immunotherapies.

    • Benjamin C. Creelan
    •  & Scott J. Antonia
  • Review Article |

    Despite much hope, anti-angiogenic agents have largely failed to achieve the promise demonstrated in preclinical models. In this Review, the authors discuss an alternative hypothesis — vessel co-option — that might explain many of these failures and describe the evidence for a role of this largely overlooked aspect of tumour biology.

    • Elizabeth A. Kuczynski
    • , Peter B. Vermeulen
    • , Francesco Pezzella
    • , Robert S. Kerbel
    •  & Andrew R. Reynolds