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Latest Reviews

  • Review Article |

    Intriguing evidence suggests that expression of RANK or RANKL by various cells of the tumour microenvironment modulates the anticancer immune response. Herein, the authors review this evidence, discuss the current preclinical and clinical data supporting a potential of RANKL inhibition to improve anticancer immunotherapy and describe hypothetical immune-related mechanisms of action.

    • Elizabeth Ahern
    • , Mark J. Smyth
    • , William C. Dougall
    •  & Michele W. L. Teng
  • Review Article |

    Improvements in the management of patients with early stage breast cancer have been achieved through intense therapeutic escalation but also with de-escalation of systemic therapies. The authors of this Review summarize key trials using both approaches and highlight the need to use therapeutic escalation for patients who would benefit from that approach and de-escalation for patients with a favourable prognosis.

    • Noam F. Pondé
    • , Dimitrios Zardavas
    •  & Martine Piccart
  • Review Article |

    Androgen receptor (AR) splice variants (AR-Vs) are truncated isoforms of the AR, of which a subset remain constitutively active in the absence of circulating androgens. AR-Vs have been proposed to contribute to therapeutic resistance. The authors of this Review outline the current understanding of the role of the spliceosome in prostate cancer progression and explore the therapeutic utility of manipulating alternative splicing.

    • Alec Paschalis
    • , Adam Sharp
    • , Jonathan C. Welti
    • , Antje Neeb
    • , Ganesh V. Raj
    • , Jun Luo
    • , Stephen R. Plymate
    •  & Johann. S. de Bono
  • Review Article |

    The clinical management of patients with non-small-cell lung carcinoma has greatly evolved owing to the development of tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKIs) targeted against the driver mutations of this disease. The authors of this Review describe the existing evidence on the sequential administration of TKIs and the use of next-generation TKIs upfront.

    • Gonzalo Recondo
    • , Francesco Facchinetti
    • , Ken A. Olaussen
    • , Benjamin Besse
    •  & Luc Friboulet
  • Consensus Statement | | open

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapies have impressive activity in the treatment of cancer but are associated with potentially fatal toxicities. In light of the approval of CAR T cell therapy for paediatric patients, a panel of experts from the Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) Subgroup of the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury and Sepsis Investigators (PALISI) Network, the CAR T Cell Therapy-Associated Toxicity (CARTOX) Program at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, and several other institutions have developed consensus guidelines for the use and management of these treatments in paediatric patients, which are presented herein.

    • Kris M. Mahadeo
    • , Sajad J. Khazal
    • , Hisham Abdel-Azim
    • , Julie C. Fitzgerald
    • , Agne Taraseviciute
    • , Catherine M. Bollard
    • , Priti Tewari
    • , Christine Duncan
    • , Chani Traube
    • , David McCall
    • , Marie E. Steiner
    • , Ira M. Cheifetz
    • , Leslie E. Lehmann
    • , Rodrigo Mejia
    • , John M. Slopis
    • , Rajinder Bajwa
    • , Partow Kebriaei
    • , Paul L. Martin
    • , Jerelyn Moffet
    • , Jennifer McArthur
    • , Demetrios Petropoulos
    • , Joan O’Hanlon Curry
    • , Sarah Featherston
    • , Jessica Foglesong
    • , Basirat Shoberu
    • , Alison Gulbis
    • , Maria E. Mireles
    • , Lisa Hafemeister
    • , Cathy Nguyen
    • , Neena Kapoor
    • , Katayoun Rezvani
    • , Sattva S. Neelapu
    •  & Elizabeth J. Shpall
  • Review Article |

    Molecular profiling studies are providing novel insights into the biology of hepatocellular carcinoma, although these remain to be translated into novel effective therapies. Nevertheless, therapeutic advances have been made in the past few years, and further advancements are expected in the near future, including biomarker-driven treatments and immunotherapies, as discussed in this Review.

    • Josep M. Llovet
    • , Robert Montal
    • , Daniela Sia
    •  & Richard S. Finn

News & Comment

  • Comment |

    The value of medical treatments is an issue that has been actively debated in recent years and is not unique to oncology. In this Comment, we discuss why we pursue treatments which might have limited benefit from the point of view of three parties: the patient, the physician, and the pharmaceutical industry.

    • Christopher M. Booth
    •  & Allan S. Detsky
  • Comment |

    Burnout is a substantial issue associated with the medical profession, with oncology being no exception. Increasing focus is being placed on implementing solutions to address physician burnout, and successful interventions have encompassed the following themes: the presence of an organizational mandate, data-driven and grassroots quality improvements, and a focus on systems change.

    • Krithika Murali
    •  & Susana Banerjee
  • News & Views |

    Chemoprevention for patients with Barrett’s oesophagus remains a controversial topic. Results of the first randomized trial of chemoprevention using a proton pump inhibitor with or without aspirin were recently reported. We highlight strengths and weaknesses in the design of the trial and discuss the clinical implications of the findings.

    • Nisreen S. Husain
    •  & Hashem B. El-Serag
  • News & Views |

    Population-based mammographic screening is widely accepted as an intervention to reduce overall mortality from breast cancer, but at the cost of morbidity due to false positives and substantial overdiagnosis and overtreatment of ultra-low-risk disease, as well as personal and health-economic burdens. Recent data from a modelling study strengthen the rationale for personalized, risk-based screening approaches, now being tested in multiple clinical trials.

    • Laura J. Esserman
    •  & Andrea Z. LaCroix

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