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  • Review |

    Clinical trials are an essential aspect of drug development; however, in patients with non-castrate prostate cancer, the long natural history of the disease provides a major barrier to the introduction of new therapies. In this Review, the authors describe the potential of a novel, multi-arm, multistage, clinical trial project, with surrogate end points designed to fully reflect the effects of treatments, in transforming the treatment of patients with early stage prostate cancer, before the development of castration-resistant disease.

    • Min Yuen Teo
    • , Matthew J. O'Shaughnessy
    • , Sean M. McBride
    • , Herbert A. Vargas
    •  & Howard I. Scher
  • Review |

    Cholangiocarcinoma, the second most common form of liver cancer after hepatocellular carcinoma, is a heterogeneous disease entity with a near-universal poor prognosis. Our understanding of the epidemiology and biology of cholangiocarcinoma is increasing, and importantly, potentially actionable molecular and immunological targets for novel therapies are increasingly being identified. Herein, the evolving developments in the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and management of cholangiocarcinoma are reviewed.

    • Sumera Rizvi
    • , Shahid A. Khan
    • , Christopher L. Hallemeier
    • , Robin K. Kelley
    •  & Gregory J. Gores
  • Review |

    Radiomics is the high-throughput mining of quantitative image features from standard-of-care medical imaging to enable data to be extracted and applied within clinical-decision support systems. The process of radiomics is described and its pitfalls, challenges, opportunities, and capacity to improve clinical decision making. The radiomics field requires standardized evaluation of scientific findings and their clinical relevance. This review provides guidance for investigations to meet this urgent need in the field of radiomics.

    • Philippe Lambin
    • , Ralph T.H. Leijenaar
    • , Timo M. Deist
    • , Jurgen Peerlings
    • , Evelyn E.C. de Jong
    • , Janita van Timmeren
    • , Sebastian Sanduleanu
    • , Ruben T.H.M. Larue
    • , Aniek J.G. Even
    • , Arthur Jochems
    • , Yvonka van Wijk
    • , Henry Woodruff
    • , Johan van Soest
    • , Tim Lustberg
    • , Erik Roelofs
    • , Wouter van Elmpt
    • , Andre Dekker
    • , Felix M. Mottaghy
    • , Joachim E. Wildberger
    •  & Sean Walsh
  • Review |

    In the past decade, the importance of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) as a key measure of the quality of care delivered to patients with cancer has been acknowledged. PROs were used in the context of research studies, but growing evidence indicates that the incorporation of electronic PRO (ePRO) assessments into standard health-care settings can improve the quality of care delivered to patients with cancer. The authors of this Review discuss aspects related to PROs such as measurements, implementation challenges, and outcome improvements associated with their use.

    • Thomas W. LeBlanc
    •  & Amy P. Abernethy
  • Review |

    TP53, encoding the tumour-suppressor p53, is the most frequently mutated gene across all human cancers. Similar to other transcription factors, p53 has proved notoriously difficult to target therapeutically; to date, no p53-targeted therapies have entered the clinic. The diversity of TP53 mutations, which can be categorized across a spectrum of different functional classes, is increasingly recognized as an additional challenge to developing p53-directed treatments. Herein, Kanaga Sabapathy and David Lane review this 'rainbow of p53 mutants', and discuss the implications for anticancer therapies targeting p53 or directed by TP53 status.

    • Kanaga Sabapathy
    •  & David P. Lane
  • Review |

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T-cell therapies are showing great promise in the treatment of cancer, particularly B-cell malignancies, but are associated with characteristic, potentially fatal toxicities, principally cytokine-release syndrome, CAR-T-cell-related encephalopathy syndrome, and haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis/macrophage-activation syndrome. Herein, the CAR-T-cell-therapy-associated TOXicity (CARTOX) Working Group, comprising multidisciplinary investigators from various institutions with clinical experience in the use of a range of CAR-T-cell platforms, review these acute toxicities and provide monitoring, grading, and management recommendations.

    • Sattva S. Neelapu
    • , Sudhakar Tummala
    • , Partow Kebriaei
    • , William Wierda
    • , Cristina Gutierrez
    • , Frederick L. Locke
    • , Krishna V. Komanduri
    • , Yi Lin
    • , Nitin Jain
    • , Naval Daver
    • , Jason Westin
    • , Alison M. Gulbis
    • , Monica E. Loghin
    • , John F. de Groot
    • , Sherry Adkins
    • , Suzanne E. Davis
    • , Katayoun Rezvani
    • , Patrick Hwu
    •  & Elizabeth J. Shpall

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