Reviews & Analysis

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  • In this Review, Lam and colleagues evaluate the current literature on sex-related differences in treatment responses in patients with heart failure and highlight potential approaches for tailored therapies and the need for sex-specific evaluation of treatment efficacy and safety in future research.

    • Janice Y. Chyou
    • Hailun Qin
    • Carolyn S. P. Lam
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Lakhal-Littleton and Cleland use the latest understanding of iron homeostasis to evaluate existing and emerging markers of iron status, describe the reciprocal relationship between iron status and heart failure, and mechanistically examine the benefits of oral and intravenous iron replacement therapies.

    • Samira Lakhal-Littleton
    • John G. F. Cleland
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Varga and colleagues provide an overview of the evidence on immune checkpoint inhibitor-induced heart failure and cardiac dysfunction that is unrelated to myocarditis, and discuss how pharmacological targeting of immune checkpoints might be a potential strategy to treat heart failure.

    • Tamás G. Gergely
    • Zsófia D. Drobni
    • Zoltán V. Varga
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Fredman and Serhan discuss the role of specialized pro-resolving mediators, a superfamily of endogenous signalling lipids that mediate resolution of inflammation processes in atherosclerosis, and appraise the therapeutic potential of specialized pro-resolving mediators for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis, and the resolution of uncontrolled vascular inflammation.

    • Gabrielle Fredman
    • Charles N. Serhan
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Sarraju and Nissen summarize the clinical trial evidence for coronary atherosclerotic plaque stabilization and regression with plasma LDL-cholesterol-lowering therapy and other treatments. Invasive and non-invasive imaging modalities used to assess plaque burden and composition are discussed.

    • Ashish Sarraju
    • Steven E. Nissen
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Bosworth and colleagues describe the causes of medication non-adherence, discuss interventions that have been clinically shown to improve adherence and identify areas for future research.

    • Adam J. Nelson
    • Neha J. Pagidipati
    • Hayden B. Bosworth
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Guzik and colleagues discuss immune and inflammatory mechanisms of hypertension, including upstream regulators and downstream effectors as well as the complex interplay between the immune system, blood pressure regulation and end-organ damage, which can help to identify new targets for therapeutic interventions.

    • Tomasz J. Guzik
    • Ryszard Nosalski
    • Grant R. Drummond
    Review Article
  • Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction (CVAD) is a malfunction of the autonomic control of circulatory homeostasis and is an important component of post-COVID-19 syndrome. In this Review, Fedorowski and colleagues define the major forms of CVAD (including postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome), and discuss the aetiology, diagnosis and management of post-COVID-19 syndrome-associated CVAD.

    • Artur Fedorowski
    • Alessandra Fanciulli
    • Richard Sutton
    Review Article
  • In this Review, the authors discuss the latest insights on RNA-binding proteins and RNA biology and appraise them in the context of cardiovascular research, summarizing the progress in our understanding of the involvement of RNA-binding proteins in cardiac biology and disease.

    • Mirko Völkers
    • Thomas Preiss
    • Matthias W. Hentze
    Review Article
  • Macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques can undergo apoptosis and several forms of regulated necrosis, including necroptosis, pyroptosis and ferroptosis. In this Review, De Meyer and colleagues describe the various forms of programmed macrophage death in atherosclerosis and the potential therapeutic implications.

    • Guido R. Y. De Meyer
    • Michelle Zurek
    • Wim Martinet
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Tsimikas and co-workers re-examine the role of lipoprotein(a) in the regulation of platelet function and propose areas for future research to define its clinical relevance for cardiovascular disease.

    • Harpreet S. Bhatia
    • Richard C. Becker
    • Sotirios Tsimikas
    Review Article
  • The NLRP3 inflammasome can sense cardiac ischaemic and non-ischaemic injury, amplify the inflammatory response and induce inflammatory cell death. In this Review, Toldo and Abbate describe the role of the NLRP3 inflammasome in numerous cardiac pathologies and summarize evidence on the use of agents targeting the NLRP3 inflammasome and related cytokines.

    • Stefano Toldo
    • Antonio Abbate
    Review Article
  • A panel of experts from the World Heart Federation provide a revised set of guidelines for the echocardiographic detection of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in patients living in RHD-endemic regions. The guidelines provide updated screening and confirmatory criteria, as well as a new stage-based classification of RHD based on risk of disease progression, which will improve the diagnosis and subsequent management of patients with RHD.

    • Joselyn Rwebembera
    • James Marangou
    • Bo Reményi
    Evidence-based Guidelines
  • In this Review, Tsimikas and Witztum discuss the role of oxidized phospholipids (OxPLs) in atherosclerosis, describe the methods for measuring OxPLs on apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins (OxPL–apoB) and their relationship with lipoprotein(a), and discuss the clinical applications of the OxPL–apoB measurement for improving diagnosis, prognosis, risk reclassification and therapeutic interventions in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

    • Sotirios Tsimikas
    • Joseph L. Witztum
    Review Article
  • Low socioeconomic position (SEP) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but whether this association is causal is uncertain. In this Review, Bann and colleagues discuss how evidence from divergent study designs can help in understanding the causal relationship between SEP and CVD and how this relationship might have been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic.

    • David Bann
    • Liam Wright
    • Nish Chaturvedi
    Review Article
  • Hypoxic conditions encountered at high altitude affect all physiological functions. In this Review, Richalet et al. describe the cardiovascular responses to acute and chronic exposure to hypoxia and provide recommendations that clinicians can give to patients with cardiovascular disease who wish to travel to high-altitude destinations.

    • Jean-Paul Richalet
    • Eric Hermand
    • François J. Lhuissier
    Review Article
  • Myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA) has been the focus of an increasing number of studies in the past decade. In this Review, Tavella and colleagues detail the prevalence and clinical presentation of MINOCA, describe the mechanisms underlying the syndrome, and summarize the sex-specific and ethnicity-specific differences in the clinical features, pathophysiological mechanisms, treatment and prognosis of MINOCA.

    • Sarena La
    • John Beltrame
    • Rosanna Tavella
    Review Article