Reviews & Analysis

Filter By:

  • In this Review, Adkar and Leeper describe the mechanisms of programmed cell death and efferocytosis, discuss how efferocytosis becomes impaired in atherosclerosis and other cardiometabolic diseases, and suggest potential strategies to target these pathways for the treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

    • Shaunak S. Adkar
    • Nicholas J. Leeper
    Review Article
  • In 1993, Lincoff and Topol claimed that the thrombolytic treatment of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction was suboptimal in many patients and gave an ‘illusion of reperfusion’. In this Perspective article, the authors propose that a similar illusion of revascularization exists for contemporary percutaneous revascularization in patients with coronary artery disease and ischaemia, and identify how outcomes might be improved.

    • Simone Fezzi
    • Daixin Ding
    • William Wijns
  • Physiological responses to stress are thought to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease via haemodynamic, vascular and immune perturbations. In this Review, Vaccarino and Bremner focus on issues with the measurement of psychological stress and the underlying pathobiology connecting stress to the risk of cardiovascular disease.

    • Viola Vaccarino
    • J. Douglas Bremner
    Review Article
  • In this Review, the authors discuss the receptors, ligands and interactors that regulate immune cell recruitment in atherosclerosis, describe mechanisms that promote the resolution of inflammation in atherosclerotic lesions, and highlight potential strategies to target these pathways for the treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

    • Yvonne Döring
    • Emiel P. C. van der Vorst
    • Christian Weber
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Kemper and colleagues discuss the canonical and non-canonical roles of the complement system in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and discuss potential new therapeutic strategies targeting the complement system for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

    • Pasquale Maffia
    • Claudio Mauro
    • Claudia Kemper
    Review Article
  • Patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) have an increased risk of cancer, and patients with cancer have an increased risk of CVD. In this Review, the authors discuss the shared modifiable risk factors and the shared pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the bidirectional relationship between these two prevalent diseases.

    • Nicholas S. Wilcox
    • Uri Amit
    • Bonnie Ky
    Review Article
  • In this Review, van Leent and colleagues provide an overview of current PET imaging approaches for assessment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, as well as of whole-body PET applications; discuss the link between imaging readouts and atherosclerotic plaque pathology; and highlight promising developments in PET systems and radiotracer synthesis.

    • Alexander Maier
    • Abraham J. P. Teunissen
    • Mandy M. T. van Leent
    Review Article
  • In this Review, the authors address considerations for enteral antithrombotic therapy in patients with cardiovascular disease and gastrointestinal comorbidities, who often have an increased risk of gastrointestinal bleeding. Approaches include tailoring of antithrombotic regimens and gastrointestinal-protection strategies.

    • Azita H. Talasaz
    • Parham Sadeghipour
    • Behnood Bikdeli
    Review Article
  • Protein glycosylation is vital to the regulation of cell function, and changes in this post-translational modification underlie many disease processes. In this Review, Chatham and Patel discuss how protein glycosylation contributes to normal cardiovascular function and its role in cardiovascular disease, identifying important knowledge gaps and areas for future research.

    • John C. Chatham
    • Rakesh P. Patel
    Review Article
  • Non-coding RNAs are implicated in the pathophysiology of ischaemic heart disease and heart failure. In this Review, Caporali and colleagues examine the biology of these molecules and discuss the potential of non-coding RNAs for translation to the clinic as biomarkers and therapeutics in adverse cardiac remodelling leading to ischaemic heart failure.

    • Andrea Caporali
    • Maryam Anwar
    • Costanza Emanueli
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Lam and colleagues evaluate the current literature on sex-related differences in treatment responses in patients with heart failure and highlight potential approaches for tailored therapies and the need for sex-specific evaluation of treatment efficacy and safety in future research.

    • Janice Y. Chyou
    • Hailun Qin
    • Carolyn S. P. Lam
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Lakhal-Littleton and Cleland use the latest understanding of iron homeostasis to evaluate existing and emerging markers of iron status, describe the reciprocal relationship between iron status and heart failure, and mechanistically examine the benefits of oral and intravenous iron replacement therapies.

    • Samira Lakhal-Littleton
    • John G. F. Cleland
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Varga and colleagues provide an overview of the evidence on immune checkpoint inhibitor-induced heart failure and cardiac dysfunction that is unrelated to myocarditis, and discuss how pharmacological targeting of immune checkpoints might be a potential strategy to treat heart failure.

    • Tamás G. Gergely
    • Zsófia D. Drobni
    • Zoltán V. Varga
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Fredman and Serhan discuss the role of specialized pro-resolving mediators, a superfamily of endogenous signalling lipids that mediate resolution of inflammation processes in atherosclerosis, and appraise the therapeutic potential of specialized pro-resolving mediators for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis, and the resolution of uncontrolled vascular inflammation.

    • Gabrielle Fredman
    • Charles N. Serhan
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Sarraju and Nissen summarize the clinical trial evidence for coronary atherosclerotic plaque stabilization and regression with plasma LDL-cholesterol-lowering therapy and other treatments. Invasive and non-invasive imaging modalities used to assess plaque burden and composition are discussed.

    • Ashish Sarraju
    • Steven E. Nissen
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Bosworth and colleagues describe the causes of medication non-adherence, discuss interventions that have been clinically shown to improve adherence and identify areas for future research.

    • Adam J. Nelson
    • Neha J. Pagidipati
    • Hayden B. Bosworth
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Guzik and colleagues discuss immune and inflammatory mechanisms of hypertension, including upstream regulators and downstream effectors as well as the complex interplay between the immune system, blood pressure regulation and end-organ damage, which can help to identify new targets for therapeutic interventions.

    • Tomasz J. Guzik
    • Ryszard Nosalski
    • Grant R. Drummond
    Review Article
  • Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction (CVAD) is a malfunction of the autonomic control of circulatory homeostasis and is an important component of post-COVID-19 syndrome. In this Review, Fedorowski and colleagues define the major forms of CVAD (including postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome), and discuss the aetiology, diagnosis and management of post-COVID-19 syndrome-associated CVAD.

    • Artur Fedorowski
    • Alessandra Fanciulli
    • Richard Sutton
    Review Article