Review Articles

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  • Various dietary patterns have been proposed to improve cardiometabolic health. In this Review, Pagidipati et al. emphasize the commonalities between recommendations on what to eat (Mediterranean, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension and low-carbohydrate or ketogenic diets) and the possible benefits of time-restricted eating and intermittent fasting.

    • Neha J. Pagidipati
    • Pam R. Taub
    • Carol F. Kirkpatrick
    Review Article
  • Infection with Trypanosoma spp. can cause Chagas disease or human African trypanosomiasis. In this Review, Sabino and colleagues discuss the effects of these infections on the heart, with particular emphasis on the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of Chagas cardiomyopathy.

    • Ester Cerdeira Sabino
    • Maria Carmo P. Nunes
    • Antonio Luiz P. Ribeiro
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Wu and co-workers describe the consequences of radiation exposure on the cardiovascular system, drawing insights from individuals exposed to whole-body radiation (including nuclear and medical workers) and from patients with cancer undergoing radiation therapy.

    • James W. S. Jahng
    • Mark P. Little
    • Joseph C. Wu
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Catapano and colleagues discuss the evidence supporting the LDL cumulative exposure hypothesis and how measuring cumulative LDL exposure can be used to estimate risk and contribute to the prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

    • Brian A. Ference
    • Eugene Braunwald
    • Alberico L. Catapano
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Porsch and Binder discuss the evidence for and mechanisms of the increased and premature risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in patients with autoimmune disease, with particular focus on systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis.

    • Florentina Porsch
    • Christoph J. Binder
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Khan and colleagues explore the evolving global epidemiology of heart failure (HF), focusing on changes in incidence and prevalence across the spectrum of left ventricular ejection fraction. The authors highlight the disparities in our understanding of HF epidemiology in low-income and middle-income countries, affirming the need for improved surveillance and resource allocation in vulnerable areas and populations.

    • Muhammad Shahzeb Khan
    • Izza Shahid
    • Javed Butler
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Adkar and Leeper describe the mechanisms of programmed cell death and efferocytosis, discuss how efferocytosis becomes impaired in atherosclerosis and other cardiometabolic diseases, and suggest potential strategies to target these pathways for the treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

    • Shaunak S. Adkar
    • Nicholas J. Leeper
    Review Article
  • Physiological responses to stress are thought to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease via haemodynamic, vascular and immune perturbations. In this Review, Vaccarino and Bremner focus on issues with the measurement of psychological stress and the underlying pathobiology connecting stress to the risk of cardiovascular disease.

    • Viola Vaccarino
    • J. Douglas Bremner
    Review Article
  • In this Review, the authors discuss the receptors, ligands and interactors that regulate immune cell recruitment in atherosclerosis, describe mechanisms that promote the resolution of inflammation in atherosclerotic lesions, and highlight potential strategies to target these pathways for the treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

    • Yvonne Döring
    • Emiel P. C. van der Vorst
    • Christian Weber
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Kemper and colleagues discuss the canonical and non-canonical roles of the complement system in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and discuss potential new therapeutic strategies targeting the complement system for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

    • Pasquale Maffia
    • Claudio Mauro
    • Claudia Kemper
    Review Article
  • Patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) have an increased risk of cancer, and patients with cancer have an increased risk of CVD. In this Review, the authors discuss the shared modifiable risk factors and the shared pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the bidirectional relationship between these two prevalent diseases.

    • Nicholas S. Wilcox
    • Uri Amit
    • Bonnie Ky
    Review Article
  • In this Review, van Leent and colleagues provide an overview of current PET imaging approaches for assessment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, as well as of whole-body PET applications; discuss the link between imaging readouts and atherosclerotic plaque pathology; and highlight promising developments in PET systems and radiotracer synthesis.

    • Alexander Maier
    • Abraham J. P. Teunissen
    • Mandy M. T. van Leent
    Review Article
  • In this Review, the authors address considerations for enteral antithrombotic therapy in patients with cardiovascular disease and gastrointestinal comorbidities, who often have an increased risk of gastrointestinal bleeding. Approaches include tailoring of antithrombotic regimens and gastrointestinal-protection strategies.

    • Azita H. Talasaz
    • Parham Sadeghipour
    • Behnood Bikdeli
    Review Article
  • Protein glycosylation is vital to the regulation of cell function, and changes in this post-translational modification underlie many disease processes. In this Review, Chatham and Patel discuss how protein glycosylation contributes to normal cardiovascular function and its role in cardiovascular disease, identifying important knowledge gaps and areas for future research.

    • John C. Chatham
    • Rakesh P. Patel
    Review Article
  • Non-coding RNAs are implicated in the pathophysiology of ischaemic heart disease and heart failure. In this Review, Caporali and colleagues examine the biology of these molecules and discuss the potential of non-coding RNAs for translation to the clinic as biomarkers and therapeutics in adverse cardiac remodelling leading to ischaemic heart failure.

    • Andrea Caporali
    • Maryam Anwar
    • Costanza Emanueli
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Lam and colleagues evaluate the current literature on sex-related differences in treatment responses in patients with heart failure and highlight potential approaches for tailored therapies and the need for sex-specific evaluation of treatment efficacy and safety in future research.

    • Janice Y. Chyou
    • Hailun Qin
    • Carolyn S. P. Lam
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Lakhal-Littleton and Cleland use the latest understanding of iron homeostasis to evaluate existing and emerging markers of iron status, describe the reciprocal relationship between iron status and heart failure, and mechanistically examine the benefits of oral and intravenous iron replacement therapies.

    • Samira Lakhal-Littleton
    • John G. F. Cleland
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Varga and colleagues provide an overview of the evidence on immune checkpoint inhibitor-induced heart failure and cardiac dysfunction that is unrelated to myocarditis, and discuss how pharmacological targeting of immune checkpoints might be a potential strategy to treat heart failure.

    • Tamás G. Gergely
    • Zsófia D. Drobni
    • Zoltán V. Varga
    Review Article