Browse Articles

  • Comment |

    The advent of ‘big data’ and modern analytics mandates a change of scale in every aspect of the biomedical enterprise. These forces are realigning academic medicine and traditional industrial partners, and also creating the context for an emerging new ecosystem for discovery, translation, care and implementation that promises to transform and integrate all these areas of endeavour.

    • Calum A. MacRae
  • Review Article |

    Neuromodulation therapy might be clinically useful in the management and prevention of lethal arrhythmias. In this Review, the authors discuss the neuroanatomical and neurophysiological basis for neuromodulation therapy, critically appraise the latest data on the clinical efficacy of this approach and highlight areas in the field of cardiac autonomic control that show the most promise for clinical translation.

    • Neil Herring
    • , Manish Kalla
    •  & David J. Paterson
  • Research Highlight |

    Cardiomyocyte-selective gene therapy to inhibit calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II effectively suppresses ventricular arrhythmias in mice with mutations known to cause catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia.

    • Gregory B. Lim
  • Review Article |

    With the increase in the availability of RNA screening tools, numerous non-coding RNAs with important functions in the heart have been identified. In this Review, Lu and Thum discuss the non-coding RNA candidates with diagnostic and therapeutic potential in cardiovascular disease.

    • Dongchao Lu
    •  & Thomas Thum
  • Review Article |

    G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinases (GRKs) can desensitize and downregulate GPCRs. In this Review, Pfleger and colleagues describe the changes in GPCR and GRK signalling in the heart under disease conditions and how GRKs can be targeted to treat heart failure.

    • Jessica Pfleger
    • , Kenneth Gresham
    •  & Walter J. Koch
  • Review Article |

    Antiretroviral therapy has transformed HIV infection into a chronic disease, and cardiovascular diseases are an important health concern in this setting. This Review discusses the clinical features of cardiovascular disease in patients with HIV infection, including the mechanisms underlying HIV-associated atherosclerosis and approaches to reduce the cardiovascular risk.

    • Priscilla Y. Hsue
    •  & David D. Waters
  • Review Article |

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is not a common disease, but it has a poor prognosis. In this Review, contemporary findings concerning the epidemiology, diagnosis, therapeutic management and prevention of IE are highlighted, with a particular emphasis on innovations and changes in guidelines.

    • Bernard Iung
    •  & Xavier Duval
  • Research Highlight |

    Placental stem cells expressing caudal-type homeobox 2 can differentiate into cardiomyocytes and vascular cells, improving cardiac function in the infarcted hearts of mice.

    • Karina Huynh
  • Review Article |

    The use of polypills containing multiple pharmaceutical agents targeting the cardiovascular system in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease is controversial. In this Review, Chow and Meng discuss the barriers to the use of polypills and focus in detail on the use of fixed-dose combination pills containing low doses of multiple blood pressure-lowering drugs.

    • Clara K. Chow
    •  & Qingtao Meng
  • Research Highlight |

    Viral vector delivery of microRNA-199a after myocardial infarction in pigs can stimulate endogenous myocardial repair mechanisms and improve cardiac function; however, persistent expression of the miRNA leads to sudden arrhythmic death.

    • Gregory B. Lim
  • Review Article |

    Conflicting findings about the effects of testosterone replacement therapy on the risk of cardiovascular disease have been reported in various studies and clinical trials. In this Review, Gagliano-Jucá and Basaria discuss the design, outcomes and shortcomings of studies on testosterone replacement therapy, as well as studies examining the cardiovascular effects of testosterone in vitro, in animals and in humans.

    • Thiago Gagliano-Jucá
    •  & Shehzad Basaria
  • News & Views |

    The global burden of cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality demands increased awareness of effective prevention strategies by patients, communities and health-care providers. The new 2019 ACC/AHA guidelines provide evidence-based, preventive recommendations for patients without known cardiovascular disease, focusing on risk estimation, a healthy lifestyle and selective indications for pharmacotherapy.

    • Rhanderson Cardoso
    •  & Khurram Nasir
  • Research Highlight |

    Cardiac myofibroblasts in patients with end-stage heart failure retain the capacity to be dedifferentiated into a less activated state.

    • Karina Huynh
  • Research Highlight |

    Neutrophils exacerbate tissue damage and inflammation in advanced atherosclerosis by triggering smooth muscle cell (SMC) lysis and death. Lesional neutrophils release neutrophil extracellular traps that contain histone H4, which interacts with SMCs to induce cell lysis, leading to the destabilization of atherosclerotic plaques.

    • Irene Fernández-Ruiz
  • Review Article |

    Dietary fats comprise heterogeneous molecules with diverse structures and complex health effects. This Review discusses the effects of different dietary fats on cell processes and cardiometabolic disease risk factors and clinical events, highlighting areas of controversy and future research directions to improve the prevention and management of cardiometabolic diseases through optimization of dietary fat intake.

    • Jason H. Y. Wu
    • , Renata Micha
    •  & Dariush Mozaffarian
  • Research Highlight |

    High-sensitivity troponin I levels are positively and strongly linked with incident coronary heart disease, heart failure hospitalization and all-cause mortality in individuals without known cardiovascular disease.

    • Karina Huynh
  • Comment |

    Retinal microvascular changes are strongly linked to prevalent and incident cardiovascular disease. These changes can now be mapped with unparalleled accuracy using retinal optical coherence tomography. Novel retinal imaging, combined with the power of deep learning, might soon equip clinicians with unique and precise risk-assessment tools that enable truly individualized patient management.

    • Tariq E. Farrah
    • , David J. Webb
    •  & Neeraj Dhaun
  • Research Highlight |

    New research on the direct effects of stress on the heart highlights the importance of the balance of stress hormone signalling through glucocorticoid receptors and mineralocorticoid receptors in cardiomyocytes to maintain cardiac health.

    • Irene Fernández-Ruiz
  • Research Highlight |

    The scavenger receptor class B member 1 (SRB1) in endothelial cells mediates active transcellular transport of circulating LDL into the artery wall and thereby drives the accumulation of LDL in macrophages, which become foam cells and promote the development of atherosclerosis

    • Irene Fernández-Ruiz
  • Perspective |

    The Framingham Heart Study (FHS) has been collecting epidemiological data on cardiovascular risk factors and disease for >70 years. In this Timeline Perspectives article, the authors summarize the major achievements of the FHS, highlight some of the seminal publications and discuss how epidemiological research has changed and continues to evolve.

    • Charlotte Andersson
    • , Andrew D. Johnson
    • , Emelia J. Benjamin
    • , Daniel Levy
    •  & Ramachandran S. Vasan
  • Research Highlight |

    Researchers have developed a triboelectric nanogenerator that can harvest biomechanical energy from the motion of the heart and thereby power an implanted pacemaker.

    • Gregory B. Lim
  • Research Highlight |

    Patients with chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy have a high prevalence of rare variants of cardiomyopathy-related genes, in particular titin-truncating variants.

    • Karina Huynh
  • Review Article |

    Mutations in genes that encode components of desmosomes are the predominant cause of arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy, a genetic disorder characterized by fibrofatty replacement of myocardial tissue and the risk of life-threatening arrhythmias. In this Review, the authors discuss the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of this condition.

    • Karyn M. Austin
    • , Michael A. Trembley
    • , Stephanie F. Chandler
    • , Stephen P. Sanders
    • , Jeffrey E. Saffitz
    • , Dominic J. Abrams
    •  & William T. Pu
  • Research Highlight |

    A new mouse model involving mechanical and metabolic stress on the heart successfully recapitulates many of the human features of HFpEF, and researchers have used this model to identify nitrosative stress as an important driver of this prevalent syndrome.

    • Gregory B. Lim
  • Review Article |

    Tricuspid valve disease, particularly tricuspid regurgitation, is a highly prevalent condition with complex pathophysiology and long-term adverse consequences. In this Review, Rodés-Cabau and colleagues discuss the latest insights on the natural history and clinical and imaging assessment of tricuspid valve disease, highlighting the surgical management and emerging transcatheter therapies that are transforming clinical practice for this challenging disease.

    • Lluis Asmarats
    • , Maurizio Taramasso
    •  & Josep Rodés-Cabau
  • Review Article |

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are emerging as a new class of non-coding RNA molecules. In this Review, the authors discuss the current understanding of circRNA biogenesis and function, with a particular emphasis on the cardiovascular system.

    • Simona Aufiero
    • , Yolan J. Reckman
    • , Yigal M. Pinto
    •  & Esther E. Creemers
  • Research Highlight |

    Two prespecified analyses of the DECLARE–TIMI 58 trial show that in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, dapagliflozin has greater cardiovascular benefit in those with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction at baseline and in those with prior myocardial infarction

    • Irene Fernández-Ruiz
  • Research Highlight |

    The Evolut Low Risk trial and the PARTNER 3 trial both show that transcatheter aortic valve replacement is at least equivalent to surgery in terms of efficacy and safety for patients with severe aortic stenosis at low operative risk.

    • Karina Huynh
  • Research Highlight |

    Dual therapies combining a calcium-channel blocker with an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or thiazide diuretic are more effective at lowering blood pressure in black African patients than the combination of an ACE inhibitor and a thiazide diuretic.

    • Isobel Leake
  • Research Highlight |

    A regimen that includes a P2Y12 inhibitor plus apixaban without aspirin results in less bleeding and hospitalizations, without significant differences in ischaemic events, than use of regimens that include a vitamin K antagonist, aspirin or both

    • Irene Fernández-Ruiz
  • Research Highlight |

    In the COACT trial, a strategy of immediate coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention did not improve outcomes following successful resuscitation after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in the absence of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

    • Gregory B. Lim
  • Research Highlight |

    AIBP-mediated cholesterol efflux promotes the specification of haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) in embryogenesis and induces adult HSPC expansion in hypercholesterolaemic conditions, mediated by SREBP2-regulated activation of Notch signalling.

    • Irene Fernández-Ruiz
  • Research Highlight |

    Use of an absorbable antibacterial envelope is a safe and effective strategy for reducing major infections related to cardiac implantable electronic devices.

    • Isobel Leake
  • Research Highlight |

    In patients with symptomatic atrial fibrillation presenting to the emergency department, immediate cardioversion was noninferior to delayed cardioversion in re-establishing a normal rhythm after 4 weeks.

    • Karina Huynh
  • News & Views |

    Nonresolving inflammation underpins several prevalent diseases, including atherosclerosis and Alzheimer disease. The resolution of inflammation is an active process that tempers pro-inflammatory pathways and promotes tissue repair. Understanding the mechanisms that boost endogenous resolution is important for the design of new treatment strategies for nonresolving diseases.

    • Gabrielle Fredman
  • Review Article |

    Neuroimmune crosstalk has a potential role in the development and maintenance of arterial hypertension. Parati and colleagues discuss the interplay between the bone marrow, microglia and immune mediators, in particular through mechanisms involving cytokines and peptides, such as neuropeptide Y, substance P, angiotensin II and angiotensin-(1–7).

    • Laura Calvillo
    • , Mariela M. Gironacci
    • , Lia Crotti
    • , Pier Luigi Meroni
    •  & Gianfranco Parati
  • Review Article |

    Various models of cardiac arrhythmia have been developed in several different animal species to study the mechanisms of disease. In this Review, Clauss and colleagues summarize the advantages and disadvantages of the models and species used in arrhythmia research and provide guidance to investigators planning experiments in this field.

    • Sebastian Clauss
    • , Christina Bleyer
    • , Dominik Schüttler
    • , Philipp Tomsits
    • , Simone Renner
    • , Nikolai Klymiuk
    • , Reza Wakili
    • , Steffen Massberg
    • , Eckhard Wolf
    •  & Stefan Kääb
  • Research Highlight |

    Functional connectivity in the limbic system of the brain, which controls emotion and the autonomic system, is reduced in patients with Takotsubo syndrome compared with healthy individuals.

    • Gregory B. Lim
  • Research Highlight |

    The activin receptor type 2 (ACTRII) pathway is activated in ageing and heart failure (HF), and inhibition of this catabolic pathway is a potential therapeutic target for HF.

    • Gregory B. Lim
  • Review Article |

    Endothelin 1 is the most potent vasoconstrictor in the human cardiovascular system. In this Review, Dhaun and Webb discuss the biology of the endothelins and endothelin receptors and how these pathways can be therapeutically targeted in cardiovascular and renal diseases.

    • Neeraj Dhaun
    •  & David J. Webb