Review Articles

Filter By:

  • In this Review, Fernandez and Giannarelli discuss how single-cell technologies can advance our understanding of the cellular and molecular composition of atherosclerotic plaques and how these approaches can guide the design of new, personalized immunotherapies and immune monitoring tools for the management of patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

    • Dawn M. Fernandez
    • Chiara Giannarelli
    Review Article
  • Fatty acids affect the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, and accumulating evidence shows that fatty acids also modulate T cell functions and processes. This Review summarizes the effects of circulating fatty acids on the metabolism, activation, proliferation and polarization of T cells and how these changes influence the subsequent functions of T cells in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.

    • Nathalie A. Reilly
    • Esther Lutgens
    • J. Wouter Jukema
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Maack and colleagues discuss the pathophysiology of angina in the context of the underlying cardiovascular condition as well as the modes of action of antianginal drugs to provide the clinician with a rationale and compass of when to use which compound or combination of drugs.

    • Edoardo Bertero
    • Gerd Heusch
    • Christoph Maack
    Review Article
  • Valvular heart disease (VHD) is a major contributor to loss of physical function, quality of life and longevity. In this Review, Prendergast and colleagues discuss the global burden of VHD, geographical variation in the presentation and clinical management, and temporal trends in disease burden.

    • Sean Coffey
    • Ross Roberts-Thomson
    • Bernard D. Prendergast
    Review Article
  • Novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists are providing new opportunities in the management of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. In this Review, Staels and colleagues discuss the physiological regulation and actions of the PPAR family and their modulation of the atherogenic lipid profile, atherosclerosis and cardiac remodelling.

    • David Montaigne
    • Laura Butruille
    • Bart Staels
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Weldy and Ashley summarize the biology of heart failure (HF), the mechanisms of action of HF drugs, and both the Mendelian genetics of cardiomyopathies and the complex genetics of HF. Finally, they present a roadmap for the future of precision medicine in HF.

    • Chad S. Weldy
    • Euan A. Ashley
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Essien and colleagues discuss the contributions of social determinants, including race/ethnicity, financial resources, and rural or residential environment, to the evaluation, treatment and management of atrial fibrillation, identify gaps in the literature, and propose future directions to investigate and address social determinants of atrial fibrillation.

    • Utibe R. Essien
    • Jelena Kornej
    • Jared W. Magnani
    Review Article
  • Epidemiological studies indicate a genetic component to the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). In this Review, Behr and colleagues evaluate monogenic and polygenic contributions to the risk of SCD in the young and SCD associated with drug therapy and analyse the potential clinical role of genomic testing in the prevention of SCD in the general population.

    • Chiara Scrocco
    • Connie R. Bezzina
    • Elijah R. Behr
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Dunstan and colleagues make a case for an approach to preventing and managing cardiovascular disease that involves sitting less and moving more, which will build on the well-established role of exercise in cardiovascular disease prevention and rehabilitation.

    • David W. Dunstan
    • Shilpa Dogra
    • Neville Owen
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Stark and Massberg discuss how the interplay between innate immunity, platelet activation and coagulation, known as immunothrombosis, functions as a host defence mechanism to limit pathogen spreading, yet its aberrant activation, termed thromboinflammation, results in thrombotic complications, highlighting the therapeutic potential of anti-inflammatory strategies in cardiovascular pathologies.

    • Konstantin Stark
    • Steffen Massberg
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Cavallari and colleagues examine the evidence supporting pharmacogenetic testing in cardiovascular medicine, describe guidelines for the use of cardiovascular pharmacogenetics and provide examples of the clinical implementation of genotype-guided therapies.

    • Julio D. Duarte
    • Larisa H. Cavallari
    Review Article
  • Atherosclerotic plaque erosion is becoming an increasingly common characteristic of culprit lesions in acute coronary syndromes. In this Review, Fahed and Jang discuss the patient phenotype and the molecular characteristics in plaque erosion and provide their vision for a potential major shift in the management of patients with plaque erosion.

    • Akl C. Fahed
    • Ik-Kyung Jang
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Gotto and colleagues summarize the evolution of our understanding of HDL structure and function, current models of atheroprotection by HDL involving reverse cholesterol transport, and their identification of a correlation between the bioavailability of free cholesterol contained in HDL and atherogenesis.

    • Henry J. Pownall
    • Corina Rosales
    • Antonio M. Gotto Jr
    Review Article
  • Dyslipidaemias, particularly hypercholesterolaemia, are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. In this Review, Catapano and colleagues summarize the latest data on plasma lipid levels and associated deaths and trends in these parameters over the past four decades in different regions of the world.

    • Angela Pirillo
    • Manuela Casula
    • Alberico L. Catapano
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Münzel and colleagues summarize the epidemiological evidence on transportation noise pollution as a cardiovascular risk factor, discussing mechanistic insights for the adverse cardiovascular effects of noise pollution and highlighting new risk markers of noise-induced cardiovascular effects as well as promising noise-mitigation strategies.

    • Thomas Münzel
    • Mette Sørensen
    • Andreas Daiber
    Review Article
  • The metabolism of lipids accumulated in blood vessel walls and the heart produces sphingolipids, such as ceramides, which are associated with the development of diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, hypertension and heart failure. In this Review, the authors discuss ceramides as drivers of cardiovascular disease and therapeutic strategies to lower plasma and cardiac levels of ceramides.

    • Ran Hee Choi
    • Sean M. Tatum
    • William L. Holland
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Sermesant and colleagues discuss the applications of artificial intelligence (AI) in cardiovascular imaging and explain how pre-existing clinical knowledge can be included in AI methods to increase robustness. They also discuss the limitations of AI approaches in cardiovascular imaging and how they can be overcome.

    • Maxime Sermesant
    • Hervé Delingette
    • Nicholas Ayache
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Holmes and colleagues compare and contrast the use of Mendelian randomization to evaluate potential drug targets versus quantitative traits and explain how genetic epidemiological studies can be used to assess the aetiological roles of biomarkers in disease and to prioritize drug targets, including designing their evaluation in clinical trials.

    • Michael V. Holmes
    • Tom G. Richardson
    • George Davey Smith
    Review Article