Review Articles

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  • In this Review, Kleinbongard and Heusch characterize the features and mechanisms of coronary microembolization and discuss the clinical trials of drugs and devices for the prevention and treatment of this phenomenon.

    • Petra Kleinbongard
    • Gerd Heusch
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Tao and colleagues discuss the latest advances in nanoparticle-based imaging and therapeutic approaches targeting macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques, highlight opportunities for novel macrophage-targeting nanomedicines for atherosclerosis diagnosis and treatment, and provide solutions to challenges in this area to accelerate clinical translation.

    • Wei Chen
    • Maaike Schilperoort
    • Wei Tao
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Nattel and colleagues discuss the role of cellular senescence in cardiac disease, summarize the therapeutic strategies that are being developed for targeting senescence and consider the potential implications for improving the management of patients with heart disease.

    • Mozhdeh Mehdizadeh
    • Martin Aguilar
    • Stanley Nattel
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Mehta and Shapiro discuss the mechanisms by which apolipoproteins regulate lipoprotein metabolism and thereby influence vascular biology and atherosclerotic disease. Advances in the understanding of apolipoprotein biology and their translation into therapeutic agents to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease are also highlighted.

    • Anurag Mehta
    • Michael D. Shapiro
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Taylor and colleagues provide a summary of the current evidence base supporting the use of cardiac rehabilitation, an overview of international guidelines for cardiac rehabilitation and a discussion of major contemporary issues facing cardiac rehabilitation delivery around the world.

    • Rod S. Taylor
    • Hasnain M. Dalal
    • Sinéad T. J. McDonagh
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Walsh et al. explore the complex contribution of genes encoding non-sarcomeric proteins that are robustly associated with non-syndromic or isolated hypertrophic cardiomyopathy to the genetics of cardiomyopathies across the full range of variant classes, from common regulatory variants to complete gene knockouts.

    • Roddy Walsh
    • Joost A. Offerhaus
    • Connie R. Bezzina
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Townsend et al. describe the epidemiology of cardiovascular disease across the WHO European Region and call for improved surveillance and monitoring to inform the development and implementation of evidence-based preventive and treatment approaches.

    • Nick Townsend
    • Denis Kazakiewicz
    • Panos Vardas
    Review Article
  • Heart failure with mid-range or mildly reduced ejection fraction (HFmrEF) accounts for up to 25% of patients with heart failure. In this Review, Lund and colleagues provide a comprehensive overview of the epidemiology, clinical profile, prognosis and potential treatment of patients with HFmrEF.

    • Gianluigi Savarese
    • Davide Stolfo
    • Lars H. Lund
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Angiolillo and colleagues discuss the latest evidence and updates on bleeding avoidance strategies in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, including risk stratification, timing of revascularization, pretreatment with antiplatelet agents, selection of vascular access, choice of coronary stents and antithrombotic treatment regimens.

    • Davide Capodanno
    • Deepak L. Bhatt
    • Dominick J. Angiolillo
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Foo and colleagues summarize the benchmark studies that have mapped the role of enhancers in cardiac disease and development, highlight instances in which enhancer-localized genetic variants explain the missing link to cardiac pathogenesis and consider how enhancer targeting might soon be developed for heart disease.

    • Chukwuemeka G. Anene-Nzelu
    • Mick C. J. Lee
    • Roger S. Y. Foo
    Review Article
  • Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and erectile dysfunction (ED) have shared risk factors and mechanisms. Moreover, ED is an independent predictor of CVD events and is an adverse effect of some cardiovascular drugs. This Review discusses how sexual function should be considered when treating patients with CVD to improve quality of life and cardiovascular outcomes.

    • Dimitrios Terentes-Printzios
    • Nikolaos Ioakeimidis
    • Charalambos Vlachopoulos
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Seidman and colleagues summarize the progress over the past 10 years with regard to genomic discoveries and strategies at the forefront of research on congenital heart disease (CHD), highlighting definitive and candidate genes associated with CHD in humans and the potential of integrating technological advances to gain new insights into the genetic architecture of CHD.

    • Sarah U. Morton
    • Daniel Quiat
    • Christine E. Seidman
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Fernandez and Giannarelli discuss how single-cell technologies can advance our understanding of the cellular and molecular composition of atherosclerotic plaques and how these approaches can guide the design of new, personalized immunotherapies and immune monitoring tools for the management of patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

    • Dawn M. Fernandez
    • Chiara Giannarelli
    Review Article
  • Fatty acids affect the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, and accumulating evidence shows that fatty acids also modulate T cell functions and processes. This Review summarizes the effects of circulating fatty acids on the metabolism, activation, proliferation and polarization of T cells and how these changes influence the subsequent functions of T cells in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.

    • Nathalie A. Reilly
    • Esther Lutgens
    • J. Wouter Jukema
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Maack and colleagues discuss the pathophysiology of angina in the context of the underlying cardiovascular condition as well as the modes of action of antianginal drugs to provide the clinician with a rationale and compass of when to use which compound or combination of drugs.

    • Edoardo Bertero
    • Gerd Heusch
    • Christoph Maack
    Review Article
  • Valvular heart disease (VHD) is a major contributor to loss of physical function, quality of life and longevity. In this Review, Prendergast and colleagues discuss the global burden of VHD, geographical variation in the presentation and clinical management, and temporal trends in disease burden.

    • Sean Coffey
    • Ross Roberts-Thomson
    • Bernard D. Prendergast
    Review Article
  • Novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists are providing new opportunities in the management of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. In this Review, Staels and colleagues discuss the physiological regulation and actions of the PPAR family and their modulation of the atherogenic lipid profile, atherosclerosis and cardiac remodelling.

    • David Montaigne
    • Laura Butruille
    • Bart Staels
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Weldy and Ashley summarize the biology of heart failure (HF), the mechanisms of action of HF drugs, and both the Mendelian genetics of cardiomyopathies and the complex genetics of HF. Finally, they present a roadmap for the future of precision medicine in HF.

    • Chad S. Weldy
    • Euan A. Ashley
    Review Article