Review Articles

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  • The microtubule network of cardiomyocytes has unique architectural and biophysical features. In this Review, Caporizzo and Prosser discuss the contribution of microtubules to cardiac mechanics, the drivers of microtubule network remodelling in heart failure and the therapeutic potential of targeting cardiac microtubules in acquired heart diseases.

    • Matthew A. Caporizzo
    • Benjamin L. Prosser
    Review Article
  • The most commonly available blood pressure (BP) monitoring devices are useful for capturing a snapshot BP value, but most have limited utility in measuring BP variability. In this Review, Schutte and colleagues outline the advantages and disadvantages of conventional and novel techniques to measure average BP levels and BP variability.

    • Aletta E. Schutte
    • Anastasios Kollias
    • George S. Stergiou
    Review Article
  • In this Review, the authors discuss the latest insight into the 3D nanostructure of the heart and how deformation during contraction and relaxation affects cellular function. They also describe technological breakthroughs in biological sample preparation, 3D imaging and data analysis with electron microscopy.

    • Peter Kohl
    • Joachim Greiner
    • Eva A. Rog-Zielinska
    Review Article
  • Sirtuins are NAD+-dependent deacetylase and deacylase enzymes that control important cellular processes, such as DNA damage repair, cellular metabolism and inflammation. In this Review, Grootaert and Bennett discuss the role of sirtuins in atherosclerosis and evaluate the therapeutic potential of agents designed to activate or inhibit sirtuin activity.

    • Mandy O. J. Grootaert
    • Martin R. Bennett
    Review Article
  • Transthyretin amyloidosis is a progressive, life-threatening disease caused by the accumulation of misfolded transthyretin, predominantly in the nerves and heart. In this Review, Aimo and colleagues provide an update on the treatment strategies aimed at blocking transthyretin production, including small interfering RNAs, antisense oligonucleotides and gene editing approaches.

    • Alberto Aimo
    • Vincenzo Castiglione
    • Michele Emdin
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Borén and colleagues provide an overview of the pathways involved in triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) assembly and intravascular processing, and discuss how the dysregulation of triglyceride transport can result in hypertriglyceridaemia.

    • Jan Borén
    • Marja-Riitta Taskinen
    • Chris J. Packard
    Review Article
  • Variants in genes encoding sarcomeric proteins can cause hypertrophic or dilated cardiomyopathy. In this Review, the authors discuss therapeutic strategies to target the cardiac sarcomere, focusing on four small molecules that have been developed that inhibit or activate the myosin motor protein to decrease or increase contractile force, respectively.

    • Sarah J. Lehman
    • Claudia Crocini
    • Leslie A. Leinwand
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Santovito and Weber discuss the functional relevance of non-canonical features of microRNAs for cardiovascular homeostasis and pathophysiology, describing the role of atypical microRNA biogenesis and localization, RISC heterogeneity, and non-conventional regulatory functions, including direct protein interactions and transcriptional regulation in the nucleus and in mitochondria.

    • Donato Santovito
    • Christian Weber
    Review Article
  • The autonomic nervous system profoundly affects the function of the cardiovascular and immune systems. In this Review, Carnevale summarizes how the neural regulation of immunity and inflammation participates in the onset and progression of cardiovascular disease and explores promising opportunities for therapeutic strategies.

    • Daniela Carnevale
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Iacobellis provides a comprehensive overview of the role of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) in cardiovascular disease, including coronary artery disease, heart failure and atrial fibrillation, discusses imaging techniques for EAT assessment and highlights the therapeutic potential of targeting EAT in cardiovascular disease.

    • Gianluca Iacobellis
    Review Article
  • Numerous new CRISPR-based genome-editing tools have expanded the application of genome editing to include gene-expression control, epigenome editing, RNA editing and live-cell imaging. In this Review, Wu and colleagues describe how these novel CRISPR tools are used to investigate biological processes and disease pathophysiology for cardiovascular research and medicine.

    • Masataka Nishiga
    • Chun Liu
    • Joseph C. Wu
    Review Article
  • In this Review, the authors provide an overview of the immune cells involved in atherosclerosis, discuss preclinical research and published and ongoing clinical trials assessing the therapeutic potential of targeting the immune system in atherosclerosis, highlight emerging therapeutic targets from preclinical studies and identify challenges for successful clinical translation.

    • Suzanne E. Engelen
    • Alice J. B. Robinson
    • Claudia Monaco
    Review Article
  • Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a rare form of heart failure that presents in late pregnancy or early in the postpartum period. In this Review, Hoes and colleagues discuss the known risk factors for PPCM, including genetic variants and pre-eclampsia, and describe the potential pathogenic mechanisms underlying the development of PPCM such as disrupted metabolic homeostasis in the heart owing to pregnancy-induced hormone fluctuations.

    • Martijn F. Hoes
    • Zoltan Arany
    • Peter van der Meer
    Review Article
  • Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a growing global public health problem owing to its high and rising prevalence and association with adverse outcomes. In this Review, Golledge summarizes the epidemiology, presentation, outcomes, pathophysiology and current treatment of PAD, and outlines ongoing research into new medical treatments.

    • Jonathan Golledge
    Review Article
  • In this Review, von Haehling and colleagues provide clinicians with practical recommendations for patients with heart failure who plan to travel, including guidelines for pre-travel risk assessment and special considerations for patients who have undergone recent surgery or have a cardiac implantable electronic device.

    • Stephan von Haehling
    • Christoph Birner
    • Gerd Hasenfuss
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Raitakari and colleagues discuss the importance of initiating the prevention of atherosclerosis in early life and summarize the major paediatric programmes for the prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

    • Olli Raitakari
    • Katja Pahkala
    • Costan G. Magnussen
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Frangogiannis summarizes the current evidence on the role of TGFβ signalling in myocardial diseases, focusing on TGFβ functions in cardiac pathophysiology and its cellular actions and molecular effectors, and discusses challenges and opportunities for therapeutic interventions targeting the TGFβ system in heart disease.

    • Nikolaos G. Frangogiannis
    Review Article
  • Cilia are now known to have broad roles in cardiac development and disease. In this Review, Yuan and colleagues discuss the latest findings that link cilia function and biogenesis to congenital heart disease and describe the role of cilia in the development of cardiac left–right asymmetry, haemodynamic mechanosensation, valvulogenesis and myocardial regeneration.

    • Lydia Djenoune
    • Kathryn Berg
    • Shiaulou Yuan
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Klarin and Natarajan discuss the implementation of polygenic risk scores in clinical medicine for risk prediction and screening algorithms for coronary artery disease, prioritization of patient subgroups that are likely to derive benefit from treatment, and efficient prospective clinical trial designs.

    • Derek Klarin
    • Pradeep Natarajan
    Review Article