Review Articles

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  • A growing body of evidence suggests that the mechanical functions of cardiac fibroblasts are an active and necessary component of myocardial growth and homeostasis. In this Review, Van Linthout and colleagues describe cell mechanosensation as a regulator of cardiac maturation and disease, and summarize the evidence showing that remodelling of the cardiac extracellular matrix, as a result of disease, can induce changes in the mechanical properties of the myocardium.

    • Maurizio Pesce
    • Georg N. Duda
    • Sophie Van Linthout
    Review Article
  • Originally intended for life-saving salvage therapy, the use of temporary mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices has become increasingly widespread. In this Review, Salter and colleagues discuss the functionality, indications, management and complications associated with temporary MCS in specific clinical scenarios.

    • Benjamin S. Salter
    • Caroline R. Gross
    • Anuradha Lala
    Review Article
  • In this Review, the authors summarize the evidence on the different effects of sex and gender on the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and treatment responses of patients with ischaemic heart disease or heart failure. In addition, they highlight unexplored areas of sex-related and gender-related factors in cardiovascular disease such as in individuals with gender dysphoria.

    • Vera Regitz-Zagrosek
    • Catherine Gebhard
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Lutsey and Zakai describe the epidemiology of venous thromboembolism, including incidence, risk factors and outcomes; summarize opportunities for primordial, primary and secondary prevention; and highlight the importance of reducing disparities in venous thromboembolism incidence and management, and opportunities to reduce them.

    • Pamela L. Lutsey
    • Neil A. Zakai
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Bäckhed and colleagues summarize the evidence for gut microbiome alterations in cardiometabolic and cardiovascular diseases and the rationale and potential benefit motivating translational approaches to target the gut microbiota and its metabolites for prevention and treatment.

    • Rima Mohsen Chakaroun
    • Lisa M. Olsson
    • Fredrik Bäckhed
    Review Article
  • Advances in single-cell RNA sequencing technologies in the past 5 years have led to a greater understanding of endothelial cell development and heterogeneity. In this Review, Red-Horse and Trimm discuss the most up-to-date research on vascular endothelial cell development and diversity, and highlight the latest findings on organ-specific endothelial cells in the heart, brain, lungs, kidneys and liver.

    • Emily Trimm
    • Kristy Red-Horse
    Review Article
  • In this Review, the authors describe the features of coronary artery vulnerable plaques as well as non-invasive and invasive diagnostic modalities that can be used to characterize them. They also discuss the prognostic utility of identifying vulnerable plaques and the best current approaches to manage these lesions, and highlight evidence gaps and future directions.

    • Prakriti Gaba
    • Bernard J. Gersh
    • Gregg W. Stone
    Review Article
  • Advances in machine learning technology in the past decade have accelerated the discovery of genetic loci associated with aortic disease. In this Review, Lindsay and colleagues discuss how emerging insights into the genetic architecture of aortic disease can improve the accuracy of disease prediction and facilitate the discovery of new therapeutic targets.

    • Elizabeth Chou
    • James P. Pirruccello
    • Mark E. Lindsay
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Nattel and colleagues discuss the evidence suggesting a pathophysiological role of cardiomyocyte inflammatory signalling in atrial fibrillation, consider the therapeutic potential associated with these signalling pathways, including strategies promoting the resolution of inflammation, and highlight crucial questions to be addressed in future research.

    • Dobromir Dobrev
    • Jordi Heijman
    • Stanley Nattel
    Review Article
  • In this Review, McGarrah and White outline the major factors regulating branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) abundance and metabolic fate, highlight molecular mechanisms connecting impaired BCAA homeostasis to cardiovascular disease and discuss the epidemiological evidence connecting BCAAs with various cardiovascular disease states.

    • Robert W. McGarrah
    • Phillip J. White
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Fischmeister and colleagues describe cAMP and cGMP signalling in cardiomyocytes and summarize the various phosphodiesterase (PDE) families expressed in the heart and how they are modified in heart failure. They also assess the potential use of inhibitors or activators of specific PDEs to treat heart failure.

    • Rima Kamel
    • Jérôme Leroy
    • Rodolphe Fischmeister
    Review Article
  • The mortality and birth prevalence of congenital heart disease (CHD) have shifted in the past 50 years owing to advances in diagnosis and treatment. In this Review, Marelli and colleagues discuss the effect of this shift in CHD epidemiology on outcomes and disease burden in adult patients and describe new initiatives and technology that can improve the delivery of health care.

    • Aihua Liu
    • Gerhard-Paul Diller
    • Ariane Marelli
    Review Article
  • Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gaseous signalling molecule with important roles in cardiovascular health and disease. In this Review, Kevil and colleagues discuss the role of H2S, its synthesizing enzymes and metabolites, their roles in the cardiovascular system, and their involvement in cardiovascular disease and associated pathologies.

    • Gopi K. Kolluru
    • Rodney E. Shackelford
    • Christopher G. Kevil
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Donato and colleagues discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms that induce endothelial cell senescence. They also discuss how endothelial cell senescence causes arterial dysfunction and contributes to cardiometabolic diseases, and the potential therapeutic role of senolytic agents in eliminating senescent endothelial cells.

    • Samuel I. Bloom
    • Md Torikul Islam
    • Anthony J. Donato
    Review Article
  • In this Review, the authors describe the mechanisms underlying lipopolysaccharide translocation from the gut to the systemic circulation and the ensuing low-grade endotoxaemia, discuss studies suggesting a role for low-grade endotoxaemia in atherothrombosis and cardiovascular complications, and highlight potential therapeutic strategies to improve gut permeability and eliminate low-grade endotoxaemia.

    • Francesco Violi
    • Vittoria Cammisotto
    • Cristina Nocella
    Review Article
  • Since the discovery of ferroptosis a decade ago, this iron-dependent form of regulated cell death has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. In this Review, Fudi Wang and colleagues discuss the link between the metabolic pathways of iron signalling and ferroptosis in the context of the cardiovascular system and describe the potential of ferroptosis inhibitors in the treatment of cardiovascular disease.

    • Xuexian Fang
    • Hossein Ardehali
    • Fudi Wang
    Review Article
  • In this Review, the authors discuss the roles of non-canonical WNT signalling in cardiovascular disease. They provide an overview of non-canonical WNT signalling, describe its links to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, heart failure and arrhythmias, and explore the clinical potential of targeting individual components of non-canonical WNT signalling in cardiovascular disease.

    • Ioannis Akoumianakis
    • Murray Polkinghorne
    • Charalambos Antoniades
    Review Article
  • The evolution of stent design has reduced the incidence of stent thrombosis, meaning that the duration of dual antiplatelet therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) might be shortened. In this Review, the authors describe the current evidence base and ongoing clinical trials into the use of P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy after PCI.

    • Davide Capodanno
    • Usman Baber
    • Dominick J. Angiolillo
    Review Article
  • The relationship between climate change and health outcomes is complex. In this Review, Rajagopalan and colleagues describe the environmental exposures associated with climate change and provide an overview of the consequences of climate change, including air pollution and extreme temperatures, on cardiovascular health and disease.

    • Haitham Khraishah
    • Barrak Alahmad
    • Sanjay Rajagopalan
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Kluin and colleagues describe the historical milestones and lessons learned in the development of total artificial hearts (TAHs), discuss the current generation of TAHs and their working mechanisms, and highlight challenges and future perspectives for the field, including new technologies that will promote TAH development in the coming decade.

    • Annemijn Vis
    • Maziar Arfaee
    • Jolanda Kluin
    Review Article