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  • Preclinical data and small clinical trials suggest that remote ischaemic conditioning (RIC) therapy protects patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. In the CONDI-2/ERIC-PPCI trial, RIC proved to be safe but did not have any short-term benefits in reducing cardiac-related death and hospitalization for heart failure.

    • Martin Cour
    • Sandrine Lecour
    News & Views
  • In a 15-year follow-up of the VADT study, no differences in major cardiovascular outcomes were found among individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus who underwent either intensive or standard glucose control. These results indicate that intensification of glycaemic control might not be expected to mitigate the risk of cardiovascular events.

    • Kershaw V. Patel
    • Darren K. McGuire
    News & Views
  • The global burden of cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality demands increased awareness of effective prevention strategies by patients, communities and health-care providers. The new 2019 ACC/AHA guidelines provide evidence-based, preventive recommendations for patients without known cardiovascular disease, focusing on risk estimation, a healthy lifestyle and selective indications for pharmacotherapy.

    • Rhanderson Cardoso
    • Khurram Nasir
    News & Views
  • Nonresolving inflammation underpins several prevalent diseases, including atherosclerosis and Alzheimer disease. The resolution of inflammation is an active process that tempers pro-inflammatory pathways and promotes tissue repair. Understanding the mechanisms that boost endogenous resolution is important for the design of new treatment strategies for nonresolving diseases.

    • Gabrielle Fredman
    News & Views
  • High-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) assays facilitate the ruling-out of myocardial infarction (MI) but identify a high number of patients with elevated troponin levels but without MI. Consequently, the term myocardial injury was included in the latest universal definition of MI. In the High-STEACS trial, use of a hs-cTnI assay was safe but had no prognostic benefit.

    • Till Keller
    • Christian W. Hamm
    News & Views
  • Cardiovascular disease and cancer share several risk factors. Patients with heart failure have a higher rate of cancer than healthy control populations. Meijers and colleagues have taken this association a step further to present new evidence suggesting that, beyond simply sharing root causes, heart failure might actually cause cancer.

    • A. Mark Richards
    News & Views
  • A wealth of data that culminated in a large clinical trial established that IL-1β blockade has beneficial effects in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. A new study in gene-targeted mice challenges this view by showing atheroprotective effects of IL-1β.

    • Göran K. Hansson
    News & Views
  • The KardiaBand, which records a rhythm strip from an AppleWatch, was paired with an app for automated detection of atrial fibrillation. A new study by Bumgarner and colleagues is one of the first studies to examine the feasibility of using a smartwatch to discriminate between sinus rhythm and atrial fibrillation.

    • Ki H. Chon
    • David D. McManus
    News & Views
  • Early studies showing that KIT+ cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) could differentiate into cardiomyocytes generated excitement regarding their potential therapeutic application. Subsequent studies called their functional relevance into question, and while claims for a contribution of KIT+ CPCs to myocardial regeneration continue, two new studies confirm the doubts about their relevance to cardiomyogenesis and provide unexpected new insights.

    • Giovanni Maroli
    • Thomas Braun
    News & Views
  • The immaturity of stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes has impeded their use for in vitro disease modelling, cardiotoxicity assays, and cell-replacement therapy. Ronaldson-Bouchard and colleagues report unparalleled in vitro maturation of stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. This advance promises to unlock the translational potential of these cells.

    • Donghui Zhang
    • William T. Pu
    News & Views
  • Hyperlipidaemia is an important risk factor for coronary artery disease. Chadwick and colleagues report significantly reduced blood lipid levels following CRISPR-based in vivo genome editing in mice to introduce loss-of-function mutations in Angptl3, encoding a lipoprotein lipase inhibitor. Treatment was effective in both wild-type and Ldlr−/− mice and had a similar effect to that of Pcsk9-targeted genome editing, without causing off-target mutations.

    • June-Wha Rhee
    • Joseph C. Wu
    News & Views
  • Advances in breast cancer therapy mean that more women are surviving cancer but are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In a statement released by the AHA, Mehta and colleagues summarize the intersection between breast cancer and CVD, and highlight the importance of vigilance in preventive measures.

    • Melissa Moey
    • Javid Moslehi
    News & Views
  • Catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with concomitant AF and heart failure (HF) is associated with significantly lower HF hospitalizations and all-cause mortality compared with medical therapy, according to the CASTLE-AF trial. This trial, along with previous trials such as AATAC, highlights the important role of AF ablation in the management of patients with HF and AF.

    • Luigi Di Biase
    • Mohammadali Habibi
    News & Views
  • The radical new US hypertension guidelines, released 3 years after the previous scientific statement, have implications far beyond their intended recipients. They include a new definition for hypertension, lower treatment targets, and extended guidance on the implementation of multidisciplinary care, including self-monitoring of blood pressure. Some recommendations are likely to generate controversy.

    • Richard J. McManus
    • Jonathan Mant
    News & Views
  • Cardiovascular disease is the world's leading cause of death, with a disproportionate burden in low-income and middle-income countries. The Resolve initiative — eliminating artificial trans fats, reducing dietary sodium, and improving treatment of elevated blood pressure — is a substantial step in the right direction, but more combined efforts will be required.

    • Rajesh Vedanthan
    • Valentin Fuster
    News & Views
  • The gut microbiota has been associated with many different disorders, including cardiovascular diseases. A new study by Jie and colleagues is the first large case–control study to examine directly the enrichment of certain communities of gut bacteria in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease compared with control individuals.

    • William T. Barrington
    • Aldons J. Lusis
    News & Views
  • Initial randomized trials of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors were terminated early owing to adverse effects or futility. The REVEAL trial now shows the benefit of CETP inhibition in coronary heart disease. Despite raising HDL-cholesterol levels, the cardiovascular effect of CETP inhibitors is probably due to lowering of non-HDL-cholesterol levels.

    • Michael V. Holmes
    • George Davey Smith
    News & Views
  • Contradictory results in animal atherosclerosis studies might partly explain limited translational efficacy, and also undermine the confidence of funding agencies, politicians, and the public in scientists and their research. A new guideline paper provides recommendations aimed at standardization of animal atherosclerosis studies to improve the reproducibility of this research.

    • Oliver Soehnlein
    • Carlos Silvestre-Roig
    News & Views
  • A novel image-analysis method using standard CT imaging demonstrates that changes in the CT signal of coronary perivascular adipose tissue are associated with the degree of inflammation in adjacent coronary plaques. This exciting development might become a useful adjuvant clinical tool, although further validation and prospective outcome studies are required.

    • Marc R. Dweck
    • Zahi A. Fayad
    News & Views
  • The benefits of aspirin in protecting against thrombotic occlusions are well-established. However, aspirin use has also been linked to increased gastrointestinal and fatal bleeding in elderly patients. Safer preventive approaches should be considered in the elderly population, including reductions in aspirin dose, alternative daily regimens, and individualized treatment strategies.

    • Victor Serebruany
    • Elena Golukhova
    News & Views