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  • Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gaseous signalling molecule with important roles in cardiovascular health and disease. In this Review, Kevil and colleagues discuss the role of H2S, its synthesizing enzymes and metabolites, their roles in the cardiovascular system, and their involvement in cardiovascular disease and associated pathologies.

    • Gopi K. Kolluru
    • Rodney E. Shackelford
    • Christopher G. Kevil
    Review Article
  • Childbearing cardiologists face a number of challenges before, during and after pregnancy, including radiation concerns, infertility, pregnancy-related complications, and inadequate parental leave and return-to-work structures. Institutions can promote an equitable work environment by creating policies to mitigate these challenges.

    • Inbar Raber
    • Amy A. Sarma
    Comment
  • The AIM2 inflammasome is activated by host and pathogen DNA. Work from the past 5 years indicates that the AIM2 inflammasome has an important role in advanced atherosclerosis driven by clonal haematopoiesis and possibly in atherosclerosis accelerated by acute infection. Therefore, the AIM2 inflammasome might be an important target for precision medicine.

    • Oliver Soehnlein
    • Alan R. Tall
    Comment
  • Overexpression of a circular RNA derived from the gene encoding the insulin receptor (Circ-INSR) prevents the development of cardiac dysfunction that occurs in response to anti-cancer therapy with doxorubicin.

    • Gregory B. Lim
    Research Highlight
  • In this Review, Donato and colleagues discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms that induce endothelial cell senescence. They also discuss how endothelial cell senescence causes arterial dysfunction and contributes to cardiometabolic diseases, and the potential therapeutic role of senolytic agents in eliminating senescent endothelial cells.

    • Samuel I. Bloom
    • Md Torikul Islam
    • Anthony J. Donato
    Review Article
  • In this Review, the authors describe the mechanisms underlying lipopolysaccharide translocation from the gut to the systemic circulation and the ensuing low-grade endotoxaemia, discuss studies suggesting a role for low-grade endotoxaemia in atherothrombosis and cardiovascular complications, and highlight potential therapeutic strategies to improve gut permeability and eliminate low-grade endotoxaemia.

    • Francesco Violi
    • Vittoria Cammisotto
    • Cristina Nocella
    Review Article
  • The lowering of dietary recommendations for the consumption of free or added sugar from 25% to 10% of daily calories has been criticized as being based on low-quality scientific evidence, ill-informed opinions and over-extrapolation of results from studies on sugar-sweetened beverages. This Comment rebuts these criticisms.

    • Kimber L. Stanhope
    Comment
  • Two new papers describe the transcriptional programmes of congenital heart disease and dilated and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy assessed using single-nucleus RNA-sequencing technologies.

    • Karina Huynh
    Research Highlight
  • More than 50% of patients with chronic heart failure present with iron deficiency, which is associated with reduced quality of life and worse prognosis. Intravenous iron supplementation therapy has been shown to improve clinical outcomes in these patients.

    • Pedro Moliner
    • Josep Comin-Colet
    Clinical Outlook
  • Since the discovery of ferroptosis a decade ago, this iron-dependent form of regulated cell death has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. In this Review, Fudi Wang and colleagues discuss the link between the metabolic pathways of iron signalling and ferroptosis in the context of the cardiovascular system and describe the potential of ferroptosis inhibitors in the treatment of cardiovascular disease.

    • Xuexian Fang
    • Hossein Ardehali
    • Fudi Wang
    Review Article
  • High plasma levels of HDL cholesterol have been shown to be associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. However, paradoxically, very high HDL-cholesterol levels are associated with increased mortality in patients with coronary artery disease, according to a new study.

    • Irene Fernández-Ruiz
    Research Highlight
  • Important lessons about human susceptibility to coronary atherosclerosis can be learned from the relative resilience of chimpanzees to coronary artery disease (CAD), despite their higher baseline plasma levels of LDL cholesterol and lipoprotein(a) than in humans. Evolutionary pressure and hyper-reactive T cells might have a role in the unique susceptibility of humans to CAD.

    • Gemma A. Figtree
    • Jason C. Kovacic
    • Helen M. McGuire
    Comment
  • Gene therapy targeting the protein trafficking regulator MOG1 successfully reversed clinical features of Brugada syndrome in a knock-in mouse model.

    • Karina Huynh
    Research Highlight
  • The cardiac parasympathetic nervous system is composed of two parallel circuits with distinct functions: one selectively controls cardiac function and another coordinates cardiac and pulmonary function.

    • Irene Fernández-Ruiz
    Research Highlight