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  • In this Review, McGarrah and White outline the major factors regulating branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) abundance and metabolic fate, highlight molecular mechanisms connecting impaired BCAA homeostasis to cardiovascular disease and discuss the epidemiological evidence connecting BCAAs with various cardiovascular disease states.

    • Robert W. McGarrah
    • Phillip J. White
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Fischmeister and colleagues describe cAMP and cGMP signalling in cardiomyocytes and summarize the various phosphodiesterase (PDE) families expressed in the heart and how they are modified in heart failure. They also assess the potential use of inhibitors or activators of specific PDEs to treat heart failure.

    • Rima Kamel
    • Jérôme Leroy
    • Rodolphe Fischmeister
    Review Article
  • The mortality and birth prevalence of congenital heart disease (CHD) have shifted in the past 50 years owing to advances in diagnosis and treatment. In this Review, Marelli and colleagues discuss the effect of this shift in CHD epidemiology on outcomes and disease burden in adult patients and describe new initiatives and technology that can improve the delivery of health care.

    • Aihua Liu
    • Gerhard-Paul Diller
    • Ariane Marelli
    Review Article
  • Bullying is common in cardiology and can have substantial adverse effects. However, bullying can be addressed by substantive leadership, organizational and individual efforts to build an inclusive and respectful culture.

    • Pamela S. Douglas
  • Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gaseous signalling molecule with important roles in cardiovascular health and disease. In this Review, Kevil and colleagues discuss the role of H2S, its synthesizing enzymes and metabolites, their roles in the cardiovascular system, and their involvement in cardiovascular disease and associated pathologies.

    • Gopi K. Kolluru
    • Rodney E. Shackelford
    • Christopher G. Kevil
    Review Article
  • Childbearing cardiologists face a number of challenges before, during and after pregnancy, including radiation concerns, infertility, pregnancy-related complications, and inadequate parental leave and return-to-work structures. Institutions can promote an equitable work environment by creating policies to mitigate these challenges.

    • Inbar Raber
    • Amy A. Sarma
  • The AIM2 inflammasome is activated by host and pathogen DNA. Work from the past 5 years indicates that the AIM2 inflammasome has an important role in advanced atherosclerosis driven by clonal haematopoiesis and possibly in atherosclerosis accelerated by acute infection. Therefore, the AIM2 inflammasome might be an important target for precision medicine.

    • Oliver Soehnlein
    • Alan R. Tall
  • Overexpression of a circular RNA derived from the gene encoding the insulin receptor (Circ-INSR) prevents the development of cardiac dysfunction that occurs in response to anti-cancer therapy with doxorubicin.

    • Gregory B. Lim
    Research Highlight
  • In this Review, Donato and colleagues discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms that induce endothelial cell senescence. They also discuss how endothelial cell senescence causes arterial dysfunction and contributes to cardiometabolic diseases, and the potential therapeutic role of senolytic agents in eliminating senescent endothelial cells.

    • Samuel I. Bloom
    • Md Torikul Islam
    • Anthony J. Donato
    Review Article
  • In this Review, the authors describe the mechanisms underlying lipopolysaccharide translocation from the gut to the systemic circulation and the ensuing low-grade endotoxaemia, discuss studies suggesting a role for low-grade endotoxaemia in atherothrombosis and cardiovascular complications, and highlight potential therapeutic strategies to improve gut permeability and eliminate low-grade endotoxaemia.

    • Francesco Violi
    • Vittoria Cammisotto
    • Cristina Nocella
    Review Article
  • The lowering of dietary recommendations for the consumption of free or added sugar from 25% to 10% of daily calories has been criticized as being based on low-quality scientific evidence, ill-informed opinions and over-extrapolation of results from studies on sugar-sweetened beverages. This Comment rebuts these criticisms.

    • Kimber L. Stanhope