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  • Despite the high consumption of fermented foods and beverages worldwide, their role in a healthy diet is still up for debate. Some fermented beverages have been demonstrated to protect against cardiovascular disease, but many aspects of the effects of fermented foods on cardiovascular health are uncertain. Better-designed studies are warranted.

    • Ramon Estruch
    • Rosa M. Lamuela-Raventós
  • Hypoxic conditions encountered at high altitude affect all physiological functions. In this Review, Richalet et al. describe the cardiovascular responses to acute and chronic exposure to hypoxia and provide recommendations that clinicians can give to patients with cardiovascular disease who wish to travel to high-altitude destinations.

    • Jean-Paul Richalet
    • Eric Hermand
    • François J. Lhuissier
    Review Article
  • Myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA) has been the focus of an increasing number of studies in the past decade. In this Review, Tavella and colleagues detail the prevalence and clinical presentation of MINOCA, describe the mechanisms underlying the syndrome, and summarize the sex-specific and ethnicity-specific differences in the clinical features, pathophysiological mechanisms, treatment and prognosis of MINOCA.

    • Sarena La
    • John Beltrame
    • Rosanna Tavella
    Review Article
  • The menopausal transition period, which begins with irregular menstrual cycles and ends with the final menstrual period, is associated with an increase in cardiovascular risk. In this Review, Mehta and Manson describe the metabolic and cardiovascular changes that occur during the menopausal transition period and summarize the evidence on the use of targeted interventions to slow the progression of atherosclerosis.

    • Jaya M. Mehta
    • JoAnn E. Manson
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Swirski and co-workers discuss how lifestyle factors modulate haematopoiesis and leukocyte migration in the context of cardiovascular homeostasis and disease, with particular focus on the role of the nervous system as the key executor connecting environmental influences to leukocyte behaviour.

    • Henrike Janssen
    • Laura L. Koekkoek
    • Filip K. Swirski
    Review Article
  • The population of patients who undergo cardiac surgery is becoming older and more medically complex, and frailty is increasingly prevalent. Prehabilitation is a multicomponent programme intended to better prepare these vulnerable patients for the stresses of surgery. Nonetheless, the effectiveness, implementation and effects on long-term outcomes of prehabilitation have not been clearly established. In particular, frailty might not be easily mitigated by prehabilitation.

    • Atilio Barbeito
    • Daniel E. Forman
    Clinical Outlook
  • Two studies now report that TET2-driven clonal haematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP) is associated with poor prognosis in patients with heart failure (HF) and preserved ejection fraction and that DNMT3A CHIP driver mutations promote dysregulated gene expression profiles that are associated with inflammation in monocytes in the setting of HF.

    • Karina Huynh
    Research Highlight
  • The link between migraine and cardiovascular disease is complex and involves overlapping mechanisms, such as endovascular disturbances. Challenges in measuring migraine, in distinguishing between causation and prediction, and in the understanding of clinical implications highlight the need for further research to guide treatment and cardiovascular risk assessment for the millions of individuals living with migraine.

    • Tobias Kurth
    • Pamela M. Rist
    Clinical Outlook
  • In patients with heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction and obesity, treatment with the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist semaglutide (2.4 mg) leads to large reductions in HF-related symptoms and physical limitations, improves exercise function and decreases body weight compared with placebo, according to the STEP-HFpEF trial.

    • Irene Fernández-Ruiz
    Research Highlight
  • In this Review, the authors discuss the clinical and experimental data on immunomodulatory effects of evidence-based treatments for heart failure and their primary mechanisms of action, and highlight potential therapeutic targets and opportunities for the development and application of novel immunomodulatory treatments for heart failure.

    • George Markousis-Mavrogenis
    • Lukas Baumhove
    • Peter van der Meer
    Review Article
  • The FIRE trial showed that complete revascularization improves outcomes in older patients with myocardial infarction (MI) and multivessel disease compared with culprit-lesion-only revascularization, whereas the MULTISTARS AMI trial reported that immediate multivessel revascularization is non-inferior to staged revascularization in patients with ST-segment elevation MI.

    • Karina Huynh
    Research Highlight
  • New data from the ECLS-SHOCK trial and a meta-analysis indicate that the routine use of venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation does not increase survival in patients with myocardial infarction-related cardiogenic shock.

    • Gregory B. Lim
    Research Highlight
  • Two clinical trials presented at the ESC Congress 2023 provide conflicting evidence on the use of optical coherence tomography to guide percutaneous coronary intervention.

    • Irene Fernández-Ruiz
    Research Highlight
  • Novel non-steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) have improved pharmacological properties compared with steroidal MRAs. Among the non-steroidal MRAs, finerenone has been approved for patients with chronic kidney disease who have diabetes mellitus and has demonstrated favourable safety and promising early results in patients with heart failure.

    • Gerasimos Filippatos
    • Dimitrios Farmakis
    Clinical Outlook
  • In patients with an acute myocardial infarction, disrupted circadian rhythms during the initial days in the cardiac intensive care unit, caused by factors such as noise, excessive night-time light and frequent patient–staff interactions, can have devastating effects on cardiac repair and long-term prognosis. Providing care that aligns with the patient’s natural circadian rhythms is critical for optimum long-term recovery. Incorporating ‘circadian medicine’ into clinical practice will provide important health-care benefits.

    • Michael J. Sole
    • Tami A. Martino
    Clinical Outlook
  • Unloading left atrial hypertension by catheter-based, transvenous creation of atrial shunts is being explored to treat heart failure. So far, trials including sham control have demonstrated safety and efficacy in lowering left-sided cardiac filling pressures. Ongoing trials will determine the effect on clinical outcomes.

    • Finn Gustafsson
    Clinical Outlook