Reviews & Analysis

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  • Disseminated leukaemia cells share many characteristics with metastasizing solid tumour cells. This Perspective discusses the key molecular processes that facilitate leukaemia metastasis, drawing comparisons with leukocyte trafficking and features of solid tumour invasion. Current and future strategies to target leukaemia metastasis are also discussed.

    • Andrew E. Whiteley
    • Trevor T. Price
    • Dorothy A. Sipkins
  • This Review discusses how long noncoding RNAs influence metastasis by functioning in discrete pro-metastatic steps including the epithelial–mesenchymal transition, invasion and migration and organotrophic colonization, and by influencing the tumour microenvironment. Diagnostic and therapeutic potential as well as controversies and ongoing technical challenges are discussed.

    • S. John Liu
    • Ha X. Dang
    • Christopher A. Maher
    Review Article
  • This Review broadly discusses therapeutic cancer vaccines, covering resistance mechanisms and strategies to overcome these, how to improve the antigen repertoire for vaccines and vaccine platforms, and approaches for enhancing immunotherapy efficacy.

    • Mansi Saxena
    • Sjoerd H. van der Burg
    • Nina Bhardwaj
    Review Article
  • This Perspective highlights the evidence from basic and translational research that genetic sex influences multiple factors that can contribute to cancer development and treatment responses, and suggests that including genetic sex considerations in treatments for patients with cancer will improve outcomes.

    • Sue Haupt
    • Franco Caramia
    • Ygal Haupt
  • An improved understanding of tumour immunology and therapy must assess the systemic immune landscape beyond the tumour microenvironment. This Review outlines peripheral immune cell reorganization in response to tumour growth and therapy, their contribution to immunotherapy responses and their potential as diagnostic or predictive biomarkers.

    • Kamir J. Hiam-Galvez
    • Breanna M. Allen
    • Matthew H. Spitzer
    Review Article
  • Autophagy is induced by stress signals in cancer cells as well as immune cells in the tumour microenvironment. This Review discusses how autophagy modulates antitumour immunity in cancer cell autonomous and non-autonomous ways, and potential approaches for targeting autophagy to enhance the antitumour immune response.

    • Houjun Xia
    • Douglas R. Green
    • Weiping Zou
    Review Article
  • Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is overexpressed in many cancers and is involved in a multitude of oncogenic processes and resistance mechanisms. This Review discusses the rationale and preclinical evidence for FAK-based combination therapies and strategies for future development.

    • John C. Dawson
    • Alan Serrels
    • Margaret C. Frame
    Review Article
  • This Review discusses the role of functional (impacting tumour phenotype) and non-functional intra-tumour heterogeneity (ITH) in cancer evolution, highlighting the importance of considering genetic and non-genetic factors and their impact on patient outcomes.

    • James R. M. Black
    • Nicholas McGranahan
    Review Article
  • Immune checkpoint inhibition does not benefit all patients. This Review discusses how antigen presentation, which is crucial for the success of this therapy, may be disrupted in tumours and dendritic cells of patients, and how tumours may further evade natural killer cell recognition.

    • Suchit Jhunjhunwala
    • Christian Hammer
    • Lélia Delamarre
    Review Article
  • Clonal expansion in phenotypically normal or non-cancer tissues is commonly seen in association with ageing and/or in response to environmental insults and chronic inflammation, but does not necessarily indicate cancer development. This Review discusses recent findings on clonal expansion in these tissues and their biological significance in cancer development, ageing and inflammatory diseases.

    • Nobuyuki Kakiuchi
    • Seishi Ogawa
    Review Article
  • Alterations in the extracellular matrix at the biochemical, biomechanical, architectural and topographical levels contribute to the development and progression of solid tumours. Our increased understanding of matrix biology is leading to the development of new approaches that co-target the matrix in cancer, including in metastasis.

    • Thomas R. Cox
    Review Article
  • Histone variants are critical for maintenance of genome integrity, nuclear architecture and cell identity. Emerging evidence implicates histone variants and their dedicated chaperones in cancer initiation and progression; this Review examines the key players, their mechanisms of action and strategies to target these therapeutically.

    • Flávia G. Ghiraldini
    • Dan Filipescu
    • Emily Bernstein
    Review Article
  • This Perspective outlines the connections of epithelial–mesenchymal transition programmes to the stem cell state in both normal and cancer stem cells and discusses emerging concepts related to the heterogeneous and plastic cell states generated by an epithelial–mesenchymal transition that influence our understanding of cancer stem cell biology and cancer metastasis.

    • Arthur W. Lambert
    • Robert A. Weinberg
  • The number of publications on deep learning for cancer diagnostics is rapidly increasing, but clinical translation is slow. This Perspective advocates performance estimation in external cohorts and strongly advises that a primary analysis is predefined in a standardized protocol preferentially stored in an online repository.

    • Andreas Kleppe
    • Ole-Johan Skrede
    • Håvard E. Danielsen
  • This Review outlines the major advances that have been made to the efficacy and safety of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapies over the past 3 years and looks to new findings that will have consequences for the future of this immunotherapy.

    • Rebecca C. Larson
    • Marcela V. Maus
    Review Article
  • This Review describes the metabolic rewiring that occurs in cancer cells transitioning through the metastatic cascade and discusses the evidence for metabolically distinct features of primary tumours and metastases.

    • Gabriele Bergers
    • Sarah-Maria Fendt
    Review Article
  • Aberrant signalling of ERBB family members plays an important role in tumorigenesis and in the escape from antitumour immunity in multiple malignancies. This Review discusses the mechanisms by which this signalling affects antitumour immune responses and the potential application of immune-genome precision medicine in this context.

    • Shogo Kumagai
    • Shohei Koyama
    • Hiroyoshi Nishikawa
    Review Article
  • This Review discusses the diverse facets of cancer biology that are shaped by aneuploidy and highlights the distinct roles of aneuploidy as both a tumour promoter and an anticancer vulnerability.

    • Anand Vasudevan
    • Klaske M. Schukken
    • Jason M. Sheltzer
    Review Article
  • This Review highlights the different genetic pathways impacted by germline mutations that can lead to the development of familial and sporadic haematological malignancies, with a particular focus on recent advances in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, acute myeloid leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndromes.

    • Jeffery M. Klco
    • Charles G. Mullighan
    Review Article
  • This Review examines recent developments in the molecular and translational aspects of bladder cancer biology and discusses their current or potential future clinical applications in the management of bladder cancer.

    • Linda Tran
    • Jin-Fen Xiao
    • Dan Theodorescu
    Review Article