Reviews & Analysis

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  • This Review summarizes how the structural details that were revealed by cryo-electron microscopy and X-ray crystallography and insights into molecular basis of polyspecificity and mechanistic studies shaped the understanding of the role of ATP-binding cassette transporter in cancer multidrug resistance, culminating in new therapeutic approaches to sensitize multidrug-resistant cancer cells to conventional and targeted therapies.

    • Andaleeb Sajid
    • Hadiar Rahman
    • Suresh V. Ambudkar
    Review Article
  • Live-cell imaging can provide spatial, morphological and molecular understanding of cancer response to treatment. Here, Alieva et al. review its recent application for uncovering drug mode of action and tumour heterogeneity in response to treatment and discuss its application for next-generation precision medicine.

    • Maria Alieva
    • Amber K. L. Wezenaar
    • Anne C. Rios
    Review Article
  • Sex steroids are major promoters of the growth of breast and prostate cancers. This Review by Poutanen et al. describes the development of treatments for these cancer types that act to restrict sex steroid availability for receptor binding by inhibiting steroid biosynthesis, being a complementary mechanism of action to the more traditional sex steroid antagonists.

    • Matti Poutanen
    • Malin Hagberg Thulin
    • Pirkko Härkönen
    Review Article
  • This Review discusses the impact of steroid-receptor-mediated modifications of long-range chromatin interactions on transcriptional heterogeneity and the initiation, progression and therapy response of hormone-dependent cancers.

    • Theophilus T. Tettey
    • Lorenzo Rinaldi
    • Gordon L. Hager
    Review Article
  • Although selective antagonism of oestrogen receptor signalling in breast cancer has been one of the most successful therapeutic approaches in oncology, resistance is a major clinical challenge. In this Review, Will et al. explore mechanisms of oestrogen-receptor-α-targeted therapeutic resistance and strategies to overcome it.

    • Marie Will
    • Jackson Liang
    • Sarat Chandarlapaty
    Review Article
  • Understanding how cell intrinsic and extrinsic factors combine to initiate transformation holds promise for the development of strategies to prevent, detect and treat cancer early. In this Review, Jassim et al. outline the various theories that have currently been proposed for cancer origins, and the determinants of cancer risk upon which they are based.

    • Amir Jassim
    • Eric P. Rahrmann
    • Richard J. Gilbertson
    Review Article
  • Since the advent of genome-wide association studies, thousands of common alleles have been linked with the risk of cancer. Here, Yang et al. review the development, utility and predictive power of polygenic risk scores and the ongoing debate about their potential for clinical application in cancer.

    • Xin Yang
    • Siddhartha Kar
    • Paul D. P. Pharoah
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Fagin et al. outline the oncogenic drivers of the common endocrine tumours, which derive from thyroid follicular cells, and how these impact tumour phenotypes and disease progression.

    • James A. Fagin
    • Gnana P. Krishnamoorthy
    • Iñigo Landa
    Review Article
  • The role of the microbiota in tumorigenesis has garnered considerable attention over the past two decades. In this Review, El Tekle and Garrett explore the current and evolving understanding of microbiota in cancers of various internal organs, as well as highlighting opportunities for targeting bacteria for cancer prevention, diagnostics and treatment.

    • Geniver El Tekle
    • Wendy S. Garrett
    Review Article
  • Tumour ecosystems encompass a multitude of variables, including enzymatic, metabolic and immune components within the tumour and across organs. This Review summarizes how micro-engineering approaches and nanosensors have been used to establish multicomponent tumour models and to assess tumour plasticity.

    • Mijin Kim
    • Magdalini Panagiotakopoulou
    • Daniel A. Heller
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Zeng et al. describe the recent single-cell omics studies that have revealed the heterogeneity of human tumour endothelial cells and demonstrate that the phenotypes of these cells extend beyond that of simply being angiogenic, an observation that could be translated into the clinic to improve upon the success rate of current anti-angiogenic therapies.

    • Qun Zeng
    • Mira Mousa
    • Peter Carmeliet
    Review Article
  • mRNA for therapeutics is growing in popularity owing to the relative ease of synthesis and nucleotide alteration for personalized medicine. In this Review, Liu et al. outline the characteristics of in vitro transcribed mRNA-based therapeutics for cancer treatment, highlighting the ongoing clinical studies, current challenges and future opportunities.

    • Chuang Liu
    • Qiangqiang Shi
    • Wei Tao
    Review Article
  • The activities of YAP and TAZ have long been associated with cancer progression. In this Review, Franklin et al. provide an integrated perspective on the latest understandings of YAP and TAZ activation, including their role as a tumour suppressor, as well as advances in YAP and TAZ therapeutic treatments.

    • J. Matthew Franklin
    • Zhengming Wu
    • Kun-Liang Guan
    Review Article
  • This Review outlines risk factors and prevention strategies for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) and highlights recent advances in the understanding of the impact of molecular and cellular intra-tumour heterogeneity that provide the basis for new therapeutic strategies to treat advanced cSCC.

    • Mårten C. G. Winge
    • Laura N. Kellman
    • Paul A. Khavari
    Review Article
  • In this Perspective article, Mel Greaves and co-workers outline emerging evidence that suggests that children with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia may have a delayed maturation of the gut microbiome compared with healthy children, a deficit that might be associated with early-life epidemiological factors and could contribute to the risk of transformation of preleukaemic clones in response to common infectious triggers.

    • Ioannis Peppas
    • Anthony M. Ford
    • Mel F. Greaves
  • In this Perspective, the authors suggest that different tumour microenvironments have ‘archetypal’ qualities across all cancers — characteristic and repeating collections of cells and gene-expression profiles at the level of the bulk tumour. They propose the existence of 12 dominant immune archetypes.

    • Alexis J. Combes
    • Bushra Samad
    • Matthew F. Krummel
  • In this Review, Schwenck et al. discuss how PET imaging of cancer has advanced through its combination with CT and MRI and the development of an array of imaging probes, and how these innovations now need to be fully integrated into the clinic to improve cancer diagnostics and guide therapy.

    • Johannes Schwenck
    • Dominik Sonanini
    • Bernd J. Pichler
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Banushi et al. discuss how endocytotic pathways impact many cancer processes including nutrient scavenging, metastasis and therapeutic drug delivery, and how knowledge of these pathways can be used to improve cancer therapy in the clinic.

    • Blerida Banushi
    • Shannon R. Joseph
    • Fiona Simpson
    Review Article
  • Eukaryotic initiation factor 4F (eIF4F) controls the translation of a subset of transcripts that include those encoding oncogenic proteins. In this Perspective article, Bartish et al. discuss the implications of targeting eIF4F on immune and stromal cells in the tumour microenvironment. In addition to discussing data from cancer models, the authors incorporate extensive data from non-cancer contexts to identify potential desirable or unwanted effects of eIF4F inhibition in these cells.

    • Margarita Bartish
    • Madelyn J. Abraham
    • Sonia V. del Rincón
  • Although metastasis is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths, our understanding of the process is limited. In this Review, Hebert et al. discuss the key features of various models of metastasis, highlighting their advantages and disadvantages for further dissecting mechanisms of metastasis and developing metastasis-targeted therapies.

    • Jess D. Hebert
    • Joel W. Neal
    • Monte M. Winslow
    Review Article